1 Notes and References CHAPTER 1: SMAU STATES AND SECURITY 1. K. J. Twitchett, IntePnational SecuPity (London: Oxford University Press, 1971) pp F. H. Hartman, The Relations of Nations (New York: Macmillan, 1967) p K. J. Holsti, IntePnational Politics (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1967) p Alan James, The Role of FoPce in IntePnational and U.N. Peacekeeping (Enstone, Oxford: The Ditchely Foundation, 1969) pp J. F. Triska and D. D. Finley, Soviet FoPeign Policy (New York: Macmillan, 1968) p Harold and Margaret Sprout, 'Environmental Factors in the Study of International Politics', JouPnal of Conflict Resolution, vol. I (December 1957) pp Johan Galtung, 'East-West Interaction Patterns', JouPnal of Peace ReseaPch. vol. 3, no. 2 (1966) pp David Vital, The SuPvival of Small States (London: Oxford University Press, 1971) pp Trygve Mathisen, The Functions of Small States in the StPategies of the GPeat PowePs (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1971) pp Karl w. Deutsch, The Analysis of IntePnational Relations (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1968) p See Robert 0. Keohane, 'Lilliputians' Dilemmas: Small States in International Politics', IntePnational 0Pganizations. vol. XXIV (1969) among others. 12. Robert L. Rothstein, Alliances and Small PowePs (New York: Columbia University Press, 1968) p. l. 13. David Vital, The Inequality of States (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967) p
2 Notes and Refe~ences Ibid. 15. Marshal 1 R. Singer, Heak States in a Ho~ld of Powe~s: The Dynamics of Inte~national Relationships (New York: Free Press, 1972) chapter 3 and 'The Foreign Policies of Small Developing States' in J. N. Rosenau et al. (eds), Ho~ld Politics (New York: Free Press, 1976) p R. P. Barston (ed.), The Othe~ Powe~s: Studies in the Fo~eign Policies of Small States (London: Allen and Unwin, 1971) p Vital, The Su~vival of Small States. pp Ibid., pp Ibid., p Ibid., p Rothstein, Alliances and Small Powe~s. pp Ibid., p James N. Rosenau, 'Pre-theories and Theories of Foreign Pol icy', in R. Barry Farrel (ed.), App~osches to Compa~ative and Inte~national Politics (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1966) pp Jack Sawyer, 'Dimensions of Nations: Size, Wealth and Politics', Ame~ican Jou~nal of Sociology, vol. 72 (September 1967) pp Stephen A. Salmore and Charles F. Hermann, 'The Effects of Size, Development and Accountability of Foreign Policy', Peace Resea~ch Society (International) Pape~s (1969) pp Bruce M. Russett, Inte~national Regions and the Inte~national System (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967). 27. Rudolph J. Rummell, 'Indicators of Cross-National and International Patterns', Ame~ican Political Science Review, vol. 63 (March 1969) pp Maurice A. East, 'Size and Foreign Pol icy Behavior: A Test of Two Models', in Charles W. Kegley et al. (eds), Inte~national Events and the Compa~ative Analysis of Fo~eign Policy (Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1975) pp Ibid., p Mathisen, Functions of Small States. p Vital, The Su~vival of Small States. pp Johan Gal tung, 'A Structural Theory of Imperialism', Jou~nal of Peace Resea~ch, vol. 8 (1971) pp Vital, The Su~vival of Small States, pp Rothstein, Alliances and Small Powe~s. pp Ibid., p Gal tung, 'East-West Interaction Patterns', p. 146.
3 276 Notes and References 37. Erling Bjol, 'The Small State in International Politics', in August Schou and Arne 0. Brundtland, Small States in International Relations (Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1971) p Ibid. 39. East, 'Size and Foreign Pol icy Behaviour' pp Thomas G. Masaryk, The Nsking of B State (New York: F. A. Stokes, 1927) p Arnold Wolfers, Discord and Collaboration (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962) p For a detailed analysis of this phenomenon see R. P. Barston, 'The External Relations of Smal 1 States', in Schou and Brundtland, Small States in International Relations. pp Annette Baker Fox, The Power of Small States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959) pp Ibid., p East, 'Size and Foreign Policy Behaviour', p Mathisen, Functions of Small States. p East, 'Size and Foreign Pol icy Behaviour', p For a good discussion of the roots of functionalism see Charles Pentland, 'Functionalism and Theories of International Political Integration' in A. J. R. Groom and Paul Taylor (eds), Theory and Practice in International Relations: Functionalism (New York: Crane, Russak, 1975) p David Mitrany, A Harking Pesce System (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1966). 50. David Mitrany, 'The Functional Approach to World Organization', International Affairs. vol. XXIV (July 1948) p Hans J. Morgenthau, 'Introduction', in Mitrany, A Harking Pesce System. p Innis Claude Jr., Power and International Relations (New York: Random House, 1962) pp ; Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations (New York: Knopf, 1978) pp Ernst B. Haas, The Uniting of Europe (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958) p Leon N. Lindberg, The Political Dynamics of Economic Integration (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 196~ p Amitai Etzioni, Political Unification (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967) pp Karl w. Deutsch et sl., Political Community and the North Atlantic Area (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957) pp. 5-6.
4 Notes snd Refe~ences Johan Galtung, 'A Structural Theory of Integration', Jou~nsl of Pesce Reses~ch. vol. 5. no. 4 (1968) p Ernst B. Haas, Beyond the Nation State (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1964) p. 48 and E. B. Haas and P. L. Schmitter, 'Economics and Differential Patterns of Political Integration: Projections About Unity in Latin America'. Inte~nsUonsl o~gsnizsuon (Autumn 1964) pp In the latter work the two authors sought to find 'functional equivalents'. 59. Philippe C.Schmitter, 'A Revised Theory of Regional Integration', Inte~nstionsl o~gsnizstion. vol. 24, no. 4 ( 1970) p Ernst B. Haas, 'Turbulent Fields and Theory of Regional Integration', Inte~nstionsl O~gsnizstion, vol. 30, no. 2 (1976) p Ernst B. Haas, M. P. Wi 1 Iiams and D. Babai, Scientists snd Wo~ld O~de~: The Uses of Technical Knowledge in Inte~nstional o~gsnizstions (Berkeley: University of California, 1977) pp Robert S. Keohane and Joseph Nye, 'Interdependence and Integration', in F. Greenstein and N. Polsby (eds), Mass.: Handbook of Political Science. vol. 8 (Reading, Addison-Wesley, 1975). 63. Lindberg, Political Oynsmics of Economic Integ~stion. pp Karl w. Deutsch, F~snce. Ge~msny snd the Weste~n Alliance (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1967) pp and J. F. Dougherty and Robert Pfaltzgraff Jr., Contending Theo~ies of Inte~nstionsl Relations (New York: Harper and Row, 1981). 65. Carl J. Friedrich, Eu~ope: An Eme~gent Nation? (New York: Harper and Row, 1969) pp Joseph s. Nye, Pesce in Ps~ts: Integ~stion snd Conflict in Regional O~gsnizsUon (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971) pp Ibid., pp Deutsch et sl., Political Community snd the No~th Atlantic A~es (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957). 69. I b i d, p Ibid., pp and Dougherty and Pfaltzgraff, Contending Theo~ies of Inte~nstionsl Relations. p Bruce M. Russett, Inte~nstionsl Regions snd Inte~nstionsl System: A Study in Political Ecology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967) pp. 171 and James A. Kuhlman, 'Eastern Europe', in Rosenau, Wo~ld Politics. p. 445.
5 n Notes and References See Johan Holst's suggestions in Schou and Brundtland, Small States ;n Internat;onal Relat;ons. pp See w. w. Kulski. The Sovjet Un;on ;n World Affajrs: A Documented Analys;s (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1973) p. 117 for Soviet motives. Clive Archer, 'EFTA and the Nordic Counci 1' in K. J. Twitchett (ed.). European Co-operatjon Today (London: Europa Publications, 1980) pp Ibid., pp Nils Andren, 'Nordic Integration' Cooperatjon and ConfUct. no. 1, (1967) p. 17. Wi 11 iam H. Riker, The Theory of Poljtjcal Coal;t;ons (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962). D. R. Holsti, P. T. Hopmann and J. D. Sullivan, Unjty and o;s;ntegrat;on ;n Internat;onal All;ances: Compara Uve Studjes (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1973) p. 4. Robert Osgood, Alljances and Amer;can Fore;gn Pol;cy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968) p. 19. S. Hoffman, 'Discord and Community: The North Atlantic Area as a Partial International System', InternaUonal OrganjzaUon. vol. 17 (Summer 1963) pp and Charles Pentland, 'International Organizations', in Rosenau, World Poljtjcs. R. 0. Keohane, 'Li 11 iputians' Dilemmas: Small States in International Politics'. Internatjonal Organjzatjons. vol. 23 (Spring 1969) p Rothstein, Alljances and Small Powers. pp Ibid., p Ibid., p Schou and Brundland, Small States ;n Internatjonal Relat;ons. p Rothstein, Alljances and Small Powers. p Ernest Lefever, 'Nehru, Nasser and Nkrumah on Neutralism', in Laurence Martin (ed.), NeutraUsm and NonaUgnment (New York: Praeger, 1962) p. 95. Rothstein, Alljances and Small Powers. pp R. o. Keohane and J. s. Nye, Power and Interdependence: World Poljtjcs ;n Trans;t;on (Boston: Little, Brown, 1977) cited inn. R. Richardson and C. W. Kegley Jr., 'Trade Dependence and Foreign Pol icy Compliance', Internatjonal Studjes Quarterly. vol. 24, no. 2 (June 1980) p Ibid., p Ibid., pp
6 Notes snd Refe~ences 279 CHAPTER 2:BILATERALJSM AND MUL TILA TERALISM IN THE BALKANS 1. New Yo~k Times. 26 October New York Times, 11 February Cal Clark and Robert L. Farlow, Comps~ative Patterns of Fo~eign Policy and T~ade (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976) pp Ernst B. Haas, The Uniting of Europe (London: Stevens and Sons, 1958) Ch R. F. Byrnes, 'Russia in Eastern Europe: Hegemony Without Security', Fo~eign Affairs (July 1971) pp T. I. Geshkoff, Balkan Union (New York: Columbia University Press, 1940) p Ibid., p L. Kossuth, Souvenirs et ecrits de mon exit (Paris, 1880) pp. 254 f f., and T. Lengye 1, 'The Hungarian Exiles and the Danubian Confederation', The Hungarian Quarte~ly. vol. v (1939) pp Tso 1 a Dr agoycheva, /tfscedon i a (Sofia: Sofia Press, 1979) pp Vanco Apostol ski, Tsola Dragoicheva and her Nemoirs Based on Greater Bulgarian Nationalist Positions (Belgrade: Dour Jugoslovenska Revija, 1979) pp Dragoycheva, Nacedonia, p. 8. Apostol ski, Tsola Drsgoichevs, pp I b i d, p. 54. Ibid. Cyrus Sulzberger, 'Balkan Unification', Globe and Nail (Toronto), 11 September J. Birch, 'Albania- the reluctant puppet', Jouf'nal of Social and Political Studies. vol. 2, no.~. p Apostol ski, Tsola Df'agoichevs. pp M.G. Zaninovich, 'The Yugoslov Variation of Wayne S. Vucinich (ed.), Contemporaf'y Twenty Years Aftef' (Berkeley: University of Press, 1969) p Tf'ibuna Romsna (Bucharest), 15 July 1976, p. 7. Marx', in Yugoslavia: California lupta de Class (Bucharest), 1 Apri , pp A. Borowiec, Yugoslavia Aftef' Tito (New York: Praeger, 1977) p A. Braun, 'Yugoslav/Romanian Concept of Peoples War', Canadian Defence Quarterly (Summer 1977) p. 39 and Adam Roberts, Nations in Arms: The Theof'y and Pf'actice of Tef'ritorisl Defense (New York: Praeger, 1976) pp
7 280 Notes and Refe~ences 23. A. Braun, Romanian Fo~eign Policy Since 1964 (New York: Praeger, 1978) pp Scinteia (Bucharest), 17 September Scinteia, 7 June 1959 and New Yo~k Times, 4 June New Yo~k Times. 1 October Ch~i sti an Science Non ito~, 8 Apr i VI Cong~es Unive~sel de la paix. Official Report, pp in Geshkoff, Balkan Union. p Ibid., p Ibid., pp Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p Les Balkans II, no. 23 (1932) pp (98). 35. Les Balkans II, no. 23 (1932) p. 569 (98). 36. Les Balkans 11, no. 22 (1932) pp (98). 37. 'The Draft Balkan Pact of the Balkan Conference' reprinted in R. J. Kerner and H. N. Howard, The Balkan Confe~ences and the Balkan Entente (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1936) pp Ibid. 39. A. Girard, 'La IVe Conference balkanique', Affai~es et~ange~es. vol. 111 (1933) pp (108). 40. 'The Four-Power Balkan Pact', reprinted in Kerner and Howard, The Balkan Confe~ences. pp Ibid., p New Yo~k Times. 26 Apri Les Balkans v (1934) pp (217). 44. Kerner and Howard, The Balkan Confe~ences, pp 'Balkan Entente between Turkey, Greece, Rumania and Yugoslavia 9 February 1934 and Bulgaria 31 July 1938', in J. A. s. Granville, Naja~ Inte~national T~eaties (New York: Stein and Day, 1974) p L. N. Ewer, 'The Balkan Alliance', Halifax Ch~onicle and He~ald, 19 August Ibid. 48. The Times (London), 10 August Ewer, 'The Ba 1 kan A 11 i ance'. 50. 'The Balkan Treaty', The Times (London), 10 August Ibid. 52. New Yo~k Times. 29 June The Times. 10 August Ibid. 55. New Yo~k Times. 3 March Ibid.
8 Notes snd Refe~ences George w. Hoffman and B. W. Neal, Yugoslsv;s snd the New Commun;sm (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1962) pp C. L. Sulzberger, 'How strong is the Balkan Alliance?', New Yo~k r;mes. 29 June Ibid. 6o. The T;mes. 25 June Geshkoff, Bslksn Unjon, p T. Vladimiroff, 'Bulgaria's Novel ~ethod of Reconstruction', Cu~~ent Hjsto~y. vol. XIII 0920) pp : 'Bulgaria's Future; An Interview with Premier Stambulisky', Uvjng Age, vol. CCCVI (1920) pp (62). 63. Sulzberger, 'Balkan Unification'. 64. David ~itrany, A Ho~k;ng Pesce System (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1966) p David ~itrany, 'The Functional Approach to World Oganization', Internstjonsl Affsj~s. vol. XXIV (July 1948) p Ernst B. Haas, The Unitjng of Eu~ope (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958) p J. S. Nye, 'Comparing Common ~arkets: a revised neefunctionalist model', in L. L. Lindberg and S. A. Scheingoeld (eds), Reg;onsl Integrstjon: Theo~y snd Reses~ch (Cambridge, ~ass.: Harvard University Press, 1971) pp E. B. Haas and P. C. Schmitter, 'Economic and differential patterns of political integration: projections about unity in Latin America', in Internstjonsl Poljtjcsl Commun;t;es: An Anthology (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1966) p Nye, 'Comparing Common ~arkets', p ]0. ~. P. Gehlen, 'The Integrative Process in Eastern Europe: a Theoretical Framework', Jou~nsl of Poljtjcs (30 February 1968) pp C. Clark, 'Foreign Trade as an Indicator of Political Interpretation in the Soviet Bloc', lnternstionsl Studies Qusrte~ly (15 September 1977) pp Roger E. Kanet, 'Integration Theory and the Study of Eastern Europe', Inte~nstionsl Studies Quarterly, vol. 18 (September 1974) p David ~itrany, 'The Possibilities of a Balkan Locarno' lnte~nstional Conciliation Series. no. 229 (1927) p. 162 in Geshkoff, Balkan Union. p Lajos Lederer, 'A Balkan Alliance', Hinn;peg F~ee P~ess (Winnipeg), 15 September Ibid.
9 282 Notes and References 76. Le Devoir, 23 January The Times. 26 January New York Times. 26 October Scinteia, 19 December Rabotnichesko Oelo (Sofia), 18 February Suddeutsche leitung (Munich), 23 April Le Nonde (Paris), 21 July Ottawa Citizen. 24 February The Times. 27 January I bid. 86. New York Times, 11 February Vjesnik (Zagreb), 8 February The Nilitary Balance (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1979) p UN Yearbook of International Trade Statistics , and 1979, vol. I (New York: United Nations, 1974, 1979) pp. 834, 924, 954 respectively. 90. Ibid. 91. Ibid. 92. UN Yearbook vol. I, p UN Yearbook and 1977 pp. 834, 924 respectively; calculated on the UN figures. 94. UN Yearbook p UN Yearbook p Ticaret (lzmir, Turkey), no. 4, 1982, p UN Yearbook p UN Yearbook pp. 521, Ticsret. no. 4, 1982, p UN Yearbook 1979, p Xenophon Zolotas, 'The Positive Contribution of Greece to the European Community', Bank of Greece Papers and Lectures. no. 40 (Athens, 1978) Table 1, p The Europa Yearbook 1981, vol. I (London: Europa Publ i cations, 1981) p. xvi i UN Yearbook and 1979, pp. 318, 404 respectively Ibid., percentages calculated Ibid., percentages calculated Ibid., percentages calculated UN Yearbook 1979, percentages calculated, p UN Yearbook p UN Yearbook 1979, percentages calculated, p Ibid Anuarul Statistic at RSR 1980 (Bucharest: Directia Centrala de Statistica, 1980) p UN Yearbook p. 919.
10 Notes and Refe~ences UN Yea~book p Statistical Pocket Book of Yugoslavia 1980 (Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office, 1980) pp UN Yea~book and pp. 919 and Ibid UN Yea~book p New Yo~k Times. 27 July 1980; Wall St~eet Jou~nal. 16 July Statistical Pocket Book of Yugoslavia 1978 (Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office, 1980) p Ibid UN Yea~book and pp. 919, 1002 respectively Ibid Statistical Pocket Book of Yugoslavia p UN Yea~book p UN Yea~book percentages calculated, p Rabot-nichesko delo (Sofia), 30 January Imports of $5,897,000 in 1970 to $6,831,000 in 1976 and exports of 5,299,000 in 1970 to $4,865,000 in 1976 and no record of exchange for 1977; exports of $5,688,000 in 1978 UN Yea~book and 1977, 1979, pp. 135, 249, 179 respectively UN Yea~book p UN Yea~book. 1977, p Anua~ul Statistic al RSR pp C. 1'\urgescu and Aurel Ghibutiu, 'Prezenta Romaniei in Circuitul Economic International si in sud-estul European' in Ins t i tutu 1 de stud i i sud-est Europene, Romani a in Sud-Estul Eu~opei (Bucharest: Editura Pol itica, 1979) p Ibid Ibid., p Ibid., pp and Anua~ul Statistic al RSR 1978 (Bucharest: Directia Centrala de Statistica, 1980) p Anua~ul Statistical RSR pp Ibid., p Anua~ul Statistic al RSR pp Anua~al Statistical RSR p Tanjug News Agency (Belgrade), 30 /'\arch 1978 cited by Nicholas L. Pano, 'Albania', in R. F. Staar (ed.), Yea~book on Inte~national Communist Affai~s (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1979) p Nilliyet (Istanbul), 22 October The Times, 21 September 1978, and Ch~istian Science Nonito~. 22 November 1978.
11 284 Notes and Refe~ences 142. Murgescu and Ghibutiu, 'Prezenta Romaniei in Circuitul Economic International', pp Ibid., p in which DAB coefficient of interdependence between zones A and B. rab value of export of zone A ~o zone B. ra - value of export zone A. ~~ value of import of zone A to zone B. GA - GNP of zone A Ibid., Table Ibid Judith Gurney, 'Energy Needs in the Balkans: A Source of Conflict or Cooperation?', The No~Td Today (February 1978) p Mehmet Shehu, Repo~t on the o;~ectjves of the Seventh Cong~ess of the Pa~ty of labou~ of Alban;a fo~ the Sixth F;ve-Yea~ Plan ( ) (Tirana, 1976) No~Td Ene~gy Supplies , U.N. Statistical Papers, Series No. 20, UN Yea~book vol. II, pp. 79, 80, Anua~ul Statjstjc at RSR 1980, p. 522 and Vassil Alexandrov and Peter Marinov, The Peoples Republjc of 8ulga~ia: Count~y. Economy, Fo~e;gn T~ade (Sofia: Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 1978) pp Anua~ul Statjstjc at RSR 1980, p Ibid., pp Ibid., pp Ibid., pp Ibid., pp Ibid., pp There was a slight recovery to 28,156 million cubic metres in Ibid., pp Christopher C. Joyner, 'The Energy Situation in Eastern Europe: Problems and Prospects', East Eu~opean Qua~te~ly, vol. X, no. 4 (1978) pp
12 Notes 1nd Refe~ences The o;l Bnd GIS Jou~nBl. 17 ~ay 1976, p Alexandrov and ~arinov, The Peoples Republ;c of BulgB~;,, pp. 50, StBt;st;cBl Pocket Book of YugoslBv;, 1981, pp. 86, UN Yes~book 1979, vol. II, p. 82. Purchases skyrocketed from $5.8 million in 1976 to $106.7 million by Gurney, 'Energy Needs in the Balkans', p StBt;st;c,l Pocket Book of Yugosl1v;, p Pet~oleum Econom;st (~ay 1976) p Gurney, 'Energy Needs in the Balkans', p Zolotas, 'Positive Contribution of Greece to the European Commmunity', Table 9, p ~arios L. Evriviades, 'Greece After Dictatorship' Cu~~ent H;sto~y (November 1979) p Ibid Qus~te~ly Econom;c Rev;ew of G~eece. Annu1l Supplement 1978 (London: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 1978) pp Tu~k;sh Economy 19B1: StBt;st;cBl Abst~1ct (Istanbul Chamber of Commerce, 1982) p See World Bank, Tu~key: P~ospects 1nd P~oblems of sn Expsnd;ng Economy (Washington: 1975) p The Association Counci 1 to the Parliamentary Committee of the Association, 13th Annual Report, Assoc;,t;on Between the Eu~ope1n Econom;c Commun;ty 1nd Tu~key (Brussels, 1978) Table All 3, p Gurney, 'Energy Needs in the Balkans', p F;nBnc;Bl T;mes, 23 February Gurney, 'Energy Needs in the Balkans', p Anus~ul StBt;st;c 11 RSR 1981, p Ibid., pp Stst;st;cBl Pocket Book of YugoslBv;, 19BO. p Alexandrov and ~arinov, The Peoples Republ;c of Bulgs~;,, p Ibid., p Zolotas, 'Positive Contribution of Greece to the European Community', Table 9, p Association Council to the Parliamental Committee, op. cit., Table All3 p. 43, $28,778 mil. in imports, Table AI 14 $29.58 million in exports and Tu~k;sh Economy 1981: StBt;st;csT Abst~Bct. p New Yo~k T;mes. 9 February ~urgescu and Ghibutiu, 'Prezenta Romaniei in Circuitul Economic International', p Ibid.
13 286 Notes and Refe~ences 187. Ibid., pp Anus~ul Statistic sl RSR pp '1. M. Boll, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept: What It Means For NATO', O~bis (Fall 1979) p Murgescu and Ghibutiu, 'Prezenta Romaniei in Circuitul Economic International', p Ibid FUght Inte~nsUonsl (London) 4 August 1979, p NiUts~y Techology. vol. Ill, Issue no. 7 (January- February 1979) p NiUts~y Techology, vol. II, Issue no. 6 (November- December) p New Yo~k Times. 12 Apri Boll, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept', p The Pulse (Ankara) 8 May Jonathan Steele, 'The Balkans, a Defused Powder Keg', Gus~disn (Manchester) 13 October John D. Bell, 'Bulgaria', in R. F. Staar, Yes~book on Inte~nstionsl Communist Affsi~s p The Times. 26 January Globe and Nail. 30 May Vjesnik. 8 November 1980, and Slobodan Stankovic, 'Yugoslavia', in Staar, Yes~book on Inte~nstionsl Communist Affsi~s p Hsshington Post. 13 January Radio F~ee Eu~ope: Situation Repo~t. 22 May Rsbotnichesko delo (Sofia), 12 July Rsbotnichesko delo. 31 May 1981; Fo~eign B~osdcsst Info~mstion Se~vice (Washington), 3 June Sofia Domestic Service, 20 October 1981; Fo~eign B~osdcsst Info~mstion Se~vice. 21 October Rsbotnichesko delo. 28 Apri Stankovic, 'Yugoslavia', p Pano, 'Albania', p Ze~i i Popullit (Tirana), 3 February 1981, cited by Nikolaos A. Stavrou 'Albania', in R.F. Staar (ed.), Yes~book on Inte~nstionsl Communist Affsi~s 1982 (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1982) pp Gus~disn (Manchester Weekly), 13 October Ibid The Eu~ops Yes~ Book vol I (London: Europa Publ i I bid. cations, 1981) p Ibid., p I bid Ibid., p
14 CHAPTER 3: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE EAST Notes snd Refe~ences Rsndom House Dictions~y (New York: 1966). 2. Adam Bromke (ed.), The Communist Ststes st the C~oss~osds Between Noscow snd Peking (New York: Praeger, 1965); A. Bromke and Rakowska-Harmstone, The Communist Ststes in Diss~~sy (New York: Praeger, 1972); Irwin Isenberg, Fe~ment in Esste~n Eu~ope (New York: H. w. Wilson, 1965); G. lonescu, The B~eskup of the Soviet Empi~e in Esste~n Eu~ope (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965). 3. Scinteis (Bucharest), Daily, Organ of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, 13 November ~. Anatole Shub, An Empi~e loses Hope: The Retu~n of Stslin's Ghost (New York: Norton, 1970). 5. Edy Kaufman, The Supe~powe~s snd Thei~ Sphe~es of Influence: The United Ststes snd the Soviet Union in Esste~n Eu~ope snd lstin Ame~ics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1976) p Joseph Kraft, 'Letter From Moscow', The New Yo~ke~ (New York) 16 October 1978, p. 12~. 1. Paul Marantz, 'Probing Moscow's Outlook', P~oblems of Communism (March-Apri ) p John Erickson, 'The Czechoslovak Invasion', The Sundsy Times (London) 1 September g. K~asnsys Zvezds. 2~ January See article on Marshal Grechko's position in The Economist. 21 February Globe snd Nsil (Toronto) 29 November R. A. Remington, The Ns~ssw Psct (Cambridge, Mass: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1971) p z. K. Brzesinski, The Soviet Bloc: Unity snd Conflict (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 196 7) p. ~56. 1~. Remington, The Ns~ssw Psct, pp Izvestis (Moscow) 27 May The Nilits~y Bslsnce (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1975) p Globe snd Nsil, 27 November A~mies snd Nespons (Zurich: lnterconair, February IS March 15, 1977) p A. Braun, 'The Evolution of the Warsaw Pact', in Csnsdisn Defence Qus~te~ly (Winter, 1973-~) p. 31, figures B and C. 20. 'The Warsaw Treaty', New Yo~k Times, 21 May 1955.
15 288 Notes snd References 21. G. Ginsburg, 'Socialist Internationalism and State Sovereignty', in The Yeerbook of ttlorld Affeirs 1971 (London: Institute of World Affairs, 1971) p 'The Warsaw Treaty', New York Times. 21 May R. Garthoff, lest Europe. September 1975 and The Nili Ury Belence , ; T. W. Wolfe, Soviet Power end Europe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970) p The Nilitery Belsnce pp T. W. Wolfe, 'The Evolving Nature of the Warsaw Pact', Rend Nemorsndum R. M PR (December 1965) p. vi. 27. Erickson, 'The Czechoslovak Invasion', op. cit. 28. The Nilitsry Bslence op. cit., pp Erickson, 'The Czechoslovak Invasion'. 30. Paul R. Shirk, 'Warsaw Treaty Organization', Nilitery Review (May 1969) p Christofer D. Jones, 'Just Wars and Limited Wars: Restraints on the use of the Soviet Armed Forces', ttlorld Politics. no. 28 (October 1975) pp John Erickson, Soviet-ttlsrsew PBct Levels (Washington: United States Strategic Institute, 1976) pp Lawrence L. Whetten (ed.) The Future of Sod et Ni litbry Power (London: Macdonald and Jones, 1976) p le Rubezhom (Moscow), 7 May A. Braun, 'The Yugoslav/Romanian Concept of People's War'. Cenedien Defence Querterly (Summer 1977) pp Romenie - Documents Events. no. 46 (Bucharest: Agerpres, November 1978) p Romenis- Documents -Events. no. 47, pp RomeniB - Documents - Events. no. 46, p M. MccGwire (ed.), Soviet Nevel Developments (New York: Praeger, 1975) p Ibid. 41. New York Times. 13 April MccGwire, Soviet Nevsl Developments. p T. W. Wolfe, 'Soviet Naval Interaction with the U.S.' in ibid., p lnestis. 26 Apri I President Sadat's speech, Radio Cairo Domestic Service, 3 Apri , in C. S. Dragnich, 'The Soviet Union's Quest for Access to Naval Facilities in Egypt Prior to the June War of 1967', in MccGwire, K. Booth and J. McDonnell (eds), Soviet NevBl Policy (New York: Praeger, 1975) p The Times (London), 15 March 1973.
16 Notes snd Refe~ences Barry Buzan, 'The Status and Future of the ~ontreux Convention', Su~vivsl (November-December, 1976) p The Times. 9 November Capt. W. H. J. ~anthorpe, 'The Soviet Navy in 1976', u.s. Nsvsl Institute P~oceedings (~ay 1977) p See A.~. Kuzmock, 'Where Does the Navy Go From Here?', Ni Hts~y Review (February, 1972) p A. Braun, 'Soviet Naval Policy in the ~editerranean; Yugloslavia and the Sonnenfeldt Doctrine', O~bis (Spring 1978) pp Ibid. 53. The Nilits~y Bslsnce pp St~stegic su~vey 1971 (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1961) p President Sadat's speech in ~ccgwire, Booth and ~cdonnel 1, Soviet Nsvsl Policy p Sultzberger interview in New Yo~k Times, 22 April Hsshington Post. 15 ~arch Newsweek, 17 January 1977, p The Times. 29 April The ~ontreux Convention, Su~vivsl (November-December, 1976) pp Robert P. Berman, 'Soviet Naval Strength and Deployment', in ~ccgwire, Soviet Nsvsl Developments. p Reute~s. 9 July Christopher Wren, New Yo~k Times. 20 August Tsss. 18 ~arch Jsne's Fighting Ships (London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1975) p See Col Gen. T. Rajko (ed.), Totsl Nstionsl Defence in Theo~y snd P~sctice (Belgrade: Navodna Armija, 1975). 67. Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone, 'Socialist Internationalism and Eastern Europe, I su~vey II (Winter 1976). and B. Ladygin andy. Peksheve, 'Law of Gradual Rapprochement Among Socialist Countries', Kommunist (~oscow, ~arch 1977) pp See J. F. Brown, Relstions Between the Soviet Union snd Its Esste~n Eu~opesn Allies. R-1742-PR (Santa ~onica: The Rand Corporation, 1975) p. 2. 6g. The Times (London), 27 June P. J. D. Wiles, Communist Inte~nstional Economics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968) pp ~. Kaser, Comecon. 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967) ch Wiles, Communist Inte~nstionsl Economics. pp John Pinder, 'Comecon, an East European C. ~.?', in semaine de Bruges, The People's Democ~scies sfte~ P~sgue (1970) p. 139.
17 290 Notes 1nd Refe~ences 74. Wiles. Communist Inte~n1tion1l Economics. pp 'Voprosy Ekonomiki ' reprinted in The Times. 7 January P. ~. Alampiev, 0. T. Bogomolov, Y. S. Shiryaev, A New App~o1ch to Economic Integ~1tion (~oscow: Progress. 1974). 77. Ibid., pp Ibid p FinBnciBl Times (London). 19 ~arch Fin1nci1l Times. 27 June The Times. 3 January Tsss. 28 September The Times. 25 September Finsnc; l Times. 18 ~ay Nepsz1b1dS1g (Budapest). 23 February David Shipler, 'In the Soviet Bloc, Economics is the Key to Unity'. New Yo~k Times. 16 ~ay Globe 1nd NBil. 7 June Business Heek. 15 December Ch~jstjan Scjence Nonito~ (Boston). 17 November Scinte;, (Bucharest). 17 October The Times. 7 June P~BVdl. 28 April Fin.nciBl Times. 19 June Globe 1nd NBil. 8 July The Ch~jstiBn Science /llonito~ (Boston). 10 February New Yo~k Times. 16 ~ay fjn1ncibl Times. 23 June AnuB~ul StBt;sr;c 11 Republic;; Socj1liste Rom1ni (Bucharest: Directia Centrala de Statistica, 1981) pp StstjsticBl Pocket Book of Yugosl1vi (Belgrade: Federal Statistical Office, 1981) p. Ill See D. S. Papp, 'Dependence and interdependence in the Warsaw Pact'. P1~1mete~s. vol. VI, no. 2 (1978) p Vassil Alexandrov and Peter ~arinov, The People's Republic of Bulgs~i = Count~y Economy T~1de (Sofia: Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce, 1978) pp See Seymour E. Goodman, 'Soviet Computing and Technology Transfer: An Overview', Ho~ld Politics. vol. XXXI, no. 4 (July 1979) pp Globe Bnd Ns;l, 9 August National Foreign Assessment Center, 'Estimating Soviet and East European Hard Currency Debt'. June New Yo~k Times. 27 September 1981.
18 Notes and Refe~ences Nont~eal Sta~. 9 May New Yo~k Times. 27 September 1981 estimated the debt at $10 bi 11 ion by the end of 1981 and western estimates in the Globe and Nail at $13 bi II ion by Neue Zu~che~ Zeitung (Zurich). 6 November New Yo~k Times. 16 May Roger Boyes, 'Manpower Shortages Strain for Comecon', Aust~alian Financial Review. 2 August Ill. For an excel lent discussion of problems in assessing the 'ba 1 ance sheet' see Paul Marer, 'East European Economies: Achievements, Problems, Prospects', in T. Rakowska-Harmstone and A. Gyorgy (eds), Communism in Easte~n Eu~ope (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979) pp The Economist. 28 April 1979, p Globe and Nail. 7 June Marer, 'East European Economics' pp Rakowska-Harmstone, 'Socialist International ism and Eastern Europe,' Su~vey II (Winter 1976), p Scinteia (Bucharest), 28 June Scinteia. 30 June The Times. 5 July Financial Times. 24 June Financial Times. 21 February See Paul lgnotus, Hunga~y (New York: Praeger, 1972) p Aurel Braun, 'Council for Mutual Economic Assistance', in R. F. Staar (ed.), Yea~book on Inte~national Communist Affai~s 1982 (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1982) p A. Ross Johnson, R. N. Dean, A. Alexiev, East Eu~opean Nilita~y Establishments: The Ha~sBw Pact's No~the~n Tie~ (Santa Monica: Rand Corporation R-2417/1 - AF/FF, December 1980) p CHAPTER 4: COMPLICATIONS FROM THE WEST 1. Edwin H. Fedder, NATO: The Dynamics of Alliance in the Postwa~ Ho~ld (New York: Dodd Mead, 1973) p Ibid., p George Liska, Nations in Alliance (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962) p Karl W. Deutsch and Morton A. Kaplan, 'The Limits of International Coalitions', in James N. Rosenau (ed.), lnte~nstionsl Aspects of Civil St~ife (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969) pp
19 292 Notes and Refe~ences 5 William T. R. Fox and Annette Baker Fox, NATO and the Range of Ame~;can Chojce (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967) p J. David Singer and Melvin Small, 'Formal Alliances, : A Quantitative Description', 1967 mimeo in Fedder, NATO. p L. W. Martin, 'Europe', in R. E. Osgood et al., Ame~jca and the World: F~om the T~uman Ooctr;ne to v;etnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1970) p Fedder, NATO. p NATO, NATO: Facts About the No~th Atlant;c T~eaty Organ; zau on (Paris: NATO Information Service, 1965) pp Ibid., p Phil Williams, 'NATO and the Eurogroup', in K. J. Twitchett (ed.), European Co-operat;on Today (London: Europa Publications, 1980) p A. Buchan, NATO ;n the 1960s (New York: Praeger, 1963) quoted by Fox and Fox, op. cit., p. 252, fn Fedder, NATO. p Ibid., p Andre Beaufre, NATO and Eu~ope (New York: Vintage Books, 1966) pp. 29, See W. c. Cromwell, The Eurogroup and NATO. Research Monograph Series No. 18 (Phi!adelphia, Foreign Pol icy Research Institute, 1974). 17. See Josef Joffe, 'European-American Relations: The Enduring Crisis', Fo~e;gn Affajrs (Spring 1981) p David P. Calleo, 'Inflation and American Power', Fore;gn Affajrs (Spring 1981) p Robert H. Guest, O~gan;zat;onal Change: The Effect of Leade~sh;p (Homewood I 11.: The Dorsey Press, 1962) pp John Foster Dulles, 'Developing NATO in Peace', Department of State BulleUn, vol. 34 (30April, 1956) pp 'The North Atlantic Treaty', in NATO Handbook (Brussels: NATO Information Service, March 1978) p NATO, NATO Bas;c Documents (Brussels, NATO Information Service, March 1976) pp Helmut Schmidt, 'A Policy of Reliable Partnership', Fore;gn Affa;~s (Spring 1981) p NATO, NATO: fjnal Commun;ques (NATO Information Service, 1974) pp Ibid., p. 329.
20 Notes and References NATO, NATO Basic Documents, pp. 83, Ibid., p NATO Handbook. 29. 'Future Tasks of the Alliance Report of the Counci 1' (The Harmel Report, December 1967) ibid., p Harold and Margaret Sprout, The Ecological Perspective on Human Affairs (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965) pp. 25ff. 31. Fedder, NATO. pp Pierre Lellouche, 'Europe and Her Defence', Foreign Affairs (Spring 1981) p See Eugene Kozicharow, 'NATO Emphasizing Political Cohesion', Aviation Week and Space Technology (3 March 1981) pp Ibid., p Lellouche, 'Europe and Her Defence', p JohnS. Sanders, 'Health is not Valued Till Sickness Comes: A Report on NATO', Defense and Foreign Affairs (February 1981) p New York Times. 2 November Bruce M. Russett, What Price Vigilance? (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1970) p Harlan Cleveland, NATO: The Transatlantic Bargain (New York: Harper and Row, 1970) p Fedder, NATO. p Hurriyet (Istanbul) 8 April, 1978; Tercuman (Istanbul) 9 April 1978 in Michael M. Boll, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept: What It Means For NATO', Orbis (Fall, 1979) p. 610ff. 42. NATO Is Fifteen Nations (Brusse 1 s' February-March 1979) p Boll, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept', p The Military Balance 1979-BO (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies) pp See George S. Harris, Troubled Alliance: Turkish American Problems in Historical Perspective (Washington, AEI-Hoover Policy Studies, 1972) p Marian Leighton, 'Soviet-Turkish relations on the eve of Ecevit's visit to Moscow', Radio Liberty Report, 12 June Dankwart A. Rustow, 'Turkey's Travails', Foreign Affairs (Fall 1979) p Hurriyet, 27 August 1978 (emphasis added) in Boll, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept', pp The Pulse (Ankara) 21 June Speech by lsik. on Turkish Domestic Radio, 30 Apri in Boll, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept', p. 619.
21 294 Notes and Refe~ences 51. NilUyet, 15 November 1978 (emphasis added) in ibid., p Econom;st Fo~e;gn Repo~t. 26 March 1981, p Istanbul Bay~am. 12 November Boll, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept', p NilHa~y Technology. vol. V, issue 21 (Bonn, February 1981) p NilU yet, 12 June N;l;ta~y Technology, p fljght Inte~natjonal. 28 March 1981, p Patrick Murphy, 'The Rise of the New Greece', Defense and Fo~e;gn Affaj~s (October 1980) p Defense and Fo~e;gn Affaj~s. no. 2 (1980) p Murphy, 'Rise of the New Greece', pp. 9 and Marios L. Evriviades, 'Greece After the Dictatorship', Cu~~ent H;sto~y (November 1979) p NATO, fjnal Commun;ques pp Ibid., p Ibid., p Yiannis Roubatis, To Vjma. 10 September and 22 October, 1978; 20 May 1979; and 16 March and 10 August, 1980, in Evriviades, 'Greece After the Dictatorship', p To~onto Sta~. 29 June Nicholas Gage, 'Greece Says NATO Role Is Its Price for u.s. Bases', The New Yo~k T;mes. 5 September Economjst Fo~e;gn Repo~t. 28 January 1981, p. ]. ]0. See also George E. Gruin, 'Ambivalence in the Alliance: U.S. Interest in the Middle East and the Evolution of Turkish Foreign Pol icy', O~bis (Summer 1980) pp. 365, Ibid., p To~onto Sta~. 6 December Economjst Fo~e;gn Repo~t. 28 January 1981, p To~onto Sta~. 28 June Econom;st Fo~e;gn Repo~t. 26 March 1981, p Globe and Nan (Toronto) 19 May J. A. s. Granville, The Najo~ Inte~natjonal T~eatjes (New York, Stein and Day, 1974) p Rad;o F~ee Eu~ope Backg~ound Repo~t. 12 December See Slobodan Stankovic, 'Yugoslav-Soviet Polemics over Afghanistan', Rad;o F~ee Eu~ope Backg~ound Repo~t. 14 January See Zdenko Antic, 'Vladimir Bakaric recalls Soviet hegemonism', Radjo F~ee Eu~ope Backg~ound Repo~t. 5 February Norah Beloff, 'Yugoslavia One of the neutrals', NATO's Fifteen Nations (June-July 1982) pp
22 Notes and Refe~ences M. George Zaninovich, 'Leadership and Change in Yugoslavia', Cu~~ent Histo~y. April Globe and Nail (Toronto) 6 November BBC, Summa~y of No~ld B~oadcasts. 1 December 1979, EE/5983/A2/ Zeri i Popullit (Tirana), 9 February 1979, Albanian Telegraph Agency in English, 9/2/ Commission of the European Communities and the Canadian Department of External Affairs, Eu~opean Community: the Facts (Ottawa, Department of External Affairs, 1976) p See E. Haas, The Uniting of Europe (Stanford: Stanford University Press 1968); M. Hodges (ed.), European Integration (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972); Leon Lindberg, The Political Dynamics of Eu~opean Economic Integration (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963); Charles Pentland, International Theory and European Integration (London: Faber, 1973). 88. Carol Cosgrove and K. J. Twitchett, 'Merging the Communities: a Milestone in Western European Integration,' Orbis (Fall 1969) pp European Community: the Facts. p Ibid., pp Ibid., p See Hans Smit and Peter E. Herzog (eds), The law of the European Economic Community, Vol. I: A Commentary on the EEC Treaty (London: Matthew Bender) pp Speech of Christopher S. Tugendhat to the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors, 'Community Decision Making', 26 September Carol Cosgrove Twitchett, 'The EEC and The European Cooperation,' in K. J. Twitchett (ed.), European Cooperation Today (London: Europa Publications, 1980) p William C. Cromwell, 'The European Community,' Current History (November 1979) p European Community: the Facts, Supra. note 86, p Globe and Nail. 30 June European Community: the Facts, p Ibid Delegation of Commission of the European Communities, 'European Council Launches EMS', European Community (Ottawa, Apr i I 1979) p. I. Hereafter referred to as European Community Eu~opean Community News Release 'Community Energy Policy, Prospects and Achievements' (Ottawa: European Press and Information Service, 6 August 1980).
23 296 Notes and Refe~ences 102. William Wallace and David Allen, 'Political Cooperation: Procedure as Substitute for Policy', in Helen Wallace and Carole Webb (eds), Poljcy Nakjng jn the Eu~opean Communjtjes (London: John Wiley, 1977) pp Roger Morgan and David Allen, 'The European Parliament: direct elections in national community perspective', The Wo~ld Today (August 1978) p Globe and Na;l, 26 March The New Yo~k Tjmes. 29 May One of the few works has been that of Phi lip Taylor, Hhen Eu~ope Speaks w;th One vo;ce: The Exte~nal Relatjons of the Eu~opean Communjty (London: Aldwych, 1979) For an excellent discussion of these problems see Geoffrey Dennis, 'European Monetary Co-operation', in Twitchett, Eu~opean Co-ope~atjon Today. pp Ghita lonescu (ed.), The Eu~opean Alte~natjves: An lnqu;~y jnto the Pol;c;es of the Eu~opean Communjty (Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1979). 'Looking for Europe', Daedalus (Winter, 1979). S. Hoffmann, 'Fragments floating in the here and now' Daedalus (Winter 1979) p. 8. David Marquand, Pa~ljament fo~ Eu~ope (London: Cape, 1979). Giscard d'estaing, remarks, 21 November 1978, French Embassy, Press and Information Division 78/102 in Cromwell, 'The European Community', p Antonio Papisca, 'Economic and monetary union policy,' in lonescu, The Eu~opean Alte~natjves. p Globe and Najl, 30 June Norbert Kolhase, 'The Greco-Turkish Conflict from a European Community Perspective', The Wo~ld Today (April 1981) p Le Nonde O;plomatjque, October Opinion on Greek Application for Membership, Bulletjn, European Community, Supplement 2/76, pp Kolhase, 'The Greco-Turkish Conflict', p Globe and Najl, 30 December The Tjmes (London) 17 December F. Stephen Larrabee, 'Dateline Athens: Greece for the Greeks' Fo~ejgn PoUcy, no. 45 (Winter ) p Loukas Tsonkalis, 'Greece in Europe: the tenth member', The Wo~ld Today (Apri ) p Globe and Najl, 30 December 1980 and 30 January Eu~opean Communjty, April 1979.
24 Notes and Refe~ences Eu~opean Community, 6 February Globe and Nail, 30 December Nilita~y Technology. February 1981, p Kolhase, 'The Greco-Turkish Conflict', p Mehmet Ali Birand, 'Turkey and the European Community', The Wo~ld Today (February 1978) pp Rustow, op. cit., p Kenneth Mackenzie, Turkey After the Storm, Conflict Studies, no. 43 (London: Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1974) pp John Kifner, 'Turkish Coup Chiefs Make Vow to Bring Stabi 1 ity to the Nation', New Yo~k Times. 13 September New Yo~k Times. 2 November The Times. 6 June Bol 1, 'Turkey's New National Security Concept', p. 622, table Time Nagazine. 14 January 1980, p Rustow, op, cit., p u.s. News and Wo~ld Repo~t. 8 June 1981, p Globe and Nail. 2 May Ibid Eu~opean Community. April Globe and Nail, 2 February New Yo~k Times. 21 January Globe and Nail. 2 February u.s. News and Wo~ld Repo~t. 8 June 1981, p A. Yalein, 'View from Ankara', Nato's Fifteen Nations (Brussels) February-March 1982, p. 54 and supplement of Ban Review of Economic Conditions (Ankara: Turkiye Is kasi A.S.) pp Quarterly Economic Report (Ankara: Union of the Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Maritime Commerce and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey, January-March, 1982) Table 10, p Ibid Globe and Nail. 2 February Eu~opean Community. News Release, 27 February Ibid. and Keesing's Contempo~a~y A~chives 27 March 1981, p New Yo~k Times. 30 June 1982; Globe and Nail. 16 August Indeke (Belgrade) no. 10, November 1979 in Radio F~ee Eu~ope Backg~ound Repo~t. 13 December Globe and Nail. 23 March Globe and Nail. 16 August 1982.
25 298 Notes and Refe~ences 156. lb i d Globe and Nail. 23 ~arch Ratko Borojevic 'Yugoslavia's Economic Relations with Developed Western Countries', Yugoslav Su~vey, February pp Eu~opean Community, News Release, 27 February The Economist (London), 1 August 1981 p Globe and Nail, 23 ~arch Globe and Nail, 3 February Ibid Globe and Nail. 23 ~arch Borojevic, 'Yugoslavia's Economic Relations' Ibid. and Globe and Nail, 23 ~arch Borojevic, 'Yugoslavia's Economic Relations', pp and Table XIV Keesing's p Eu~opean Community, News Release, 27 February, Globe and Nail, 25 September Facts of Fne. 10 Apr i , p Globe and Nai 1, 16 January Anua~ul Statistical RSR 1979 & 1980 (Bucharest, Directia Centrala de Statistica, 1980 & 1981) pp , pp respectively Keesing's p BBC Wo~ld Se~vice News, 25 November Committee for Integrated Social Information System, Bulga~ia '78 (Sofia, 1978) Economic Outlook P.R. Bulga~ia 1981 (Sofia: Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 1981) p Frederick B. Chary, 'Bulgaria: The Solace of History', Cu~~ent Histo~y (April 1981) pp Facts on Fne. 10 April 1981, p Economic Outlook P.R. Bulga~ia, op. cit., p 'Albania', Defence and Fo~eign Affai~s Handbook (1980) p Nikolaos A. Stavrou, 'Albania' in R.F. Staar (ed.), Yea~book on Inte~national Communist Affai~s 1982 (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1982) p CHAPTER 5: THE BULGARIAN STUMBLING BLOCK 1. David Mitrany, The Effect of the Wa~ in Southeaste~n Eu~ope (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936) p David M. Lang, The Bulga~ians (London, Thames and Hudson, 1976) pp
26 Notes and Refe~ences Nissan Oren, Revolution Administe~ed (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973) pp E. M. Ham 'Education', in L. A. D. Dell in (ed.), Bulga~ia (New York: F. A. Praeger, 1957) p Ibid. 6. Dellin, Bulga~ia. p Peter Thrax, The Bulga~s. self-styled P~ussians of the Balkans (New York: Greek Government Office of lnformat ion, 1944) 8. Joseph Rothschild, 'Communism in Bulgaria', P~oblems of Communism (July 1975) p Oren, Revolution Administe~ed. p Charles Jelavich, Tsa~ist Russia and Balkan Nationalism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1958) pp. vii-i x. 11. Ibid., p. viii. 12. Oren, Revolution Administe~ed. p Ibid., pp Ibid., pp and J. Rothschild, The Communist Pa~ty of Bulga~ia: O~igins and Development (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959). 15. Dellin, Bulga~ia, p R. V. Burks, 'National ism and Communism in Yugoslavia', in H. Birnbaum and S. Vryonis (eds), Aspects of the Balkans (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1972) p s. P. Ladas, The Exchange of Nino~ities: Bulga~ia, G~eece and Tu~key (New York: Macmillan, 1932) p. 13 and pp Mitrany, The Effect of the Ha~. pp Krishna Ahooja-Patel, The G~eco-Bulga~ian Dispute Befo~e the league of Nations (Geneva: University of Geneva, 1974) p. 35 and pp R. J. Kerner and H. c. Howard, The Balkan Confe~ences and the Balkan Entente (Berkeley: University of California, 1936) p Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p Oren, Revolution Administe~ed. p c. Clark and Robert L. Farlow, Compa~ative Patte~ns of fo~eign Policy and T~ade (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1976) p Nissan Oren, Bulga~ian Communism: The Road to Powe~ (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971). 27. The Times (London) 27 April Rabotnichesko Oelo (Sofia) 26 April 1978 in Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, Info~mation BuT Teti n. vol. XXX II, no 5, 1978 (Henceforth referred