University of Groningen. The logistic design of the LOFAR radio telescope Schakel, L.P.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "University of Groningen. The logistic design of the LOFAR radio telescope Schakel, L.P."

Transcription

1 University of Groningen The logistic design of the LOFAR radio telescope Schakel, L.P. IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from it. Please check the document version below. Document Version Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record Publication date: 2009 Link to publication in University of Groningen/UMCG research database Citation for published version (APA): Schakel, L. P. (2009). The logistic design of the LOFAR radio telescope: an operations Research Approach to optimize imaging performance and construction costs. Enschede: PrintPartners Ipskamp B.V., Enschede, The Netherlands. Copyright Other than for strictly personal use, it is not permitted to download or to forward/distribute the text or part of it without the consent of the author(s) and/or copyright holder(s), unless the work is under an open content license (like Creative Commons). Take-down policy If you believe that this document breaches copyright please contact us providing details, and we will remove access to the work immediately and investigate your claim. Downloaded from the University of Groningen/UMCG research database (Pure): For technical reasons the number of authors shown on this cover page is limited to 10 maximum. Download date:

2 Bibliography Aarts, E. H. L. and Lenstra, J. K., Introduction, in: Aarts, E. H. L. and Lenstra, J. K. (eds.), Local Search in Combinatorial Optimization, pp. 1 17, Wiley, Chichester, Ahuja, R., Magnanti, T., and Orlin, J., Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, ASC, ASTRON, Annual Report , ASTRON, Call for proposals: LOFAR low-cost design high band antenna - mechanical, ASTRON, a. ASTRON, b. ASTRON, c. ATNF, Annual Report 2003, AUI, Baan, W. A. and Boonstra, A. J., Site characteristics for LOFAR. Drenthe site, The Netherlands., Technical report, ASTRON, Bahcall, J., The Big Bang is bang on, Nature, 408, pp , Barnett, V. and Lewis, T., Outliers in Statistical Data, 3rd edn., Wiley, Chichester, Barrett, D., Bazlamaçci, C. F. and Hindi, K. S., Minimum-weight spanning tree algorithms: a survey and empirical study, Computers & Operations Research, 28, pp , Beasley, J. E., OR-Library: distributing test problems by electronic mail, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 41, pp , Bentum, M., Maatschappelijke Kosten-Batenanalyse van het LOFAR-Project, Master s thesis, University of Nyenrode,

3 248 Bibliography Bezemer, M. B. and De Jong, V. J., Economische analyse LOFAR, Technical report, Mount Everest, Blythe, J. H., A new type of pencil beam aerial for radio astronomy, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 117, 6, pp , Boone, F., Interferometric array design: optimizing the locations of the antenna pads, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 377, pp , Boone, F., Private communications, Borůvka, O., O jistém problému minimaálním [Czech, with German summary; On a minimal problem], Práce Moravské Prírodovĕdecké Spole cnosti Brnĕ [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Naturalium Moravi[c]ae], 3, pp , 1926a. Borůvka, O., P ríspĕvek k re sení otázky ekonomické stavby elektrovodních sítí [Czech; Contribution to the solution of a problem of economical construction of electrical networks], Elektrotechnický Obzor, 15, 10, pp , 1926b. Bracewell, R. N., Zoom arrays, ATNF Technical Memo 10.1/021, Bregman, J. D., Concept design for a low frequency array, SPIE Proceedings of Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, Radio Telescopes, 4015, pp , Bregman, J. D., Kant, G. W., and Ou, H., Multi-terabit routing in the LOFAR signal and data transport networks, in: URSI 27th General Assembly, Maastricht, Breunig, M. M., Kriegel, H.-P., Ng, R. T., and Sander, J., Lof: identifying densitybased local outliers, ACM SIGMOD Record, 29, 2, pp , Briggs, D. S., High Fidelity Deconvolution of Moderately Resolved Sources, Ph.D. thesis, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Brigham, E. O., The Fast Fourier Transform and its Applications, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Brüggen, M., Falcke, H., Beck, R., and Enßlin, T., German LOFAR white paper, Technical report, Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bsik/LOFAR Consortium, LOFAR ICT for wide-area adaptive sensor networks, Technical report, ASTRON, Burke, B. F. and Graham-Smith, F., An Introduction to Radio Astronomy, 2nd edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Butcher, H. R., Salah, J. E., and Rickard, L. J., Statement of the the LOFAR International Steering Committee on the LOFAR site selection, Letter, CBS, De digitale economie 2005, CBS, Cheng, X. and Du, D. Z. (eds.), Steiner Trees in Industry, Combinatorial Optimization, 11, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Choukhmane, E. A., Une heuristique pour le problème de l arbre de Steiner, R.A.I.R.O. Recherche Opérationnelle, 12, pp , 1978.

4 Bibliography 249 Cohanim, B. E., Hewitt, J. N., and De Weck, O., The design of radio telescope array configurations using multiobjective optimization: imaging performance versus cable length, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 154, pp , Conway, J. E., Self-similar spiral geometries for the LSA/MMA, ALMA Memo 216, Conway, J. E., A comparison of zoom arrays with circular and spiral symmetry, ALMA Memo 260, Conway, J. E., Cornwell, T. J., and Wilkinson, P. N., Multi-frequency synthesis: a new technique in radio interferometric imaging, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 246, 3, pp , Cooley, J. W. and Tukey, J. W., An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series, Mathematics of Computation, 19, 90, pp , Cornwell, T. J., Quality indicators for the MM array, ALMA Memo 18, Cornwell, T. J., A novel principle for optimization of the instantaneous Fourier plane coverage of correlation arrays, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 36, 8, pp , Crombaghs, M. and Kösters, A., Coördinaattransformaties en kaartprojecties, Technical report, Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Darwin, C. R., The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, John Murray, London, De Garis, H., Genetic programming: modular evolution for Darwin machines, in: Proceedings of the 1990 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, pp , Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Washington, De Jong, K. A., An Analysis of the Behaviour of a Class of Genetic Adaptive Systems, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, De Villiers, M., Interferometric array layout design by tomographic projection, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 469, pp , De Vos, M., LOFAR phase I baseline specification, Technical report, ASTRON, Dijkstra, E. W., A note on two problems in connexion with graphs, Numerische Mathematik, 1, pp , Dowsland, K. A., Hill-climbing, simulated annealing, and the Steiner problem in graphs, Engineering Optimization, 17, pp , Du, D. Z. and Hwang, F. K., A proof of the Gilbert-Pollak conjecture on the Steiner ratio, Algorithmica, 7, pp , Duin, C. W., Steiner s Problem in Graphs, Ph.D. thesis, University of Amsterdam, Duin, C. W., Preprocessing the Steiner problem in graphs, in: Du, D. Z., Smith, J. M., and Rubinstein, J. H. (eds.), Advances in Steiner Trees, pp , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Duin, C. W. and Volgenant, A., Reduction tests for the Steiner problem in graphs, Networks, 19, pp , 1989.

5 250 Bibliography Esbensen, H., Computing near-optimal solutions to the Steiner problem in a graph using a genetic algorithm, Networks, 26, pp , Expertgroep Breedband, Nederland breedbandland, 2002a. Expertgroep Breedband, Nederland breedbandland (annex), 2002b. Floyd, R. W., Algorithm 97: shortest path, Communications of the ACM, 5, p. 345, Fogel, L. J., Owens, A. J., and Walsh, M. J., Artificial Intelligence through Simulated Evolution, Wiley, New York, Garey, M. R., Graham, R. L., and Johnson, D. S., The complexity of computing Steiner minimal trees, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 32, 4, pp , Garey, M. R. and Johnson, D. S., Computers and Intractability: a Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness, Freeman, San Francisco, Gendreau, M., An introduction to tabu search, in: Glover, F. and Kochenberger, G. A. (eds.), Handbook of Metaheuristics, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, 57, pp , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Gendreau, M., Larochelle, J. F., and Sansò, B., A tabu search heuristic for the Steiner tree problem, Networks, 34, 2, pp , GEOSTEINER homepage, Gilbert, E. N. and Pollak, H. O., Steiner minimal trees, SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics, 16, 1, pp. 1 29, Glover, F., Future paths for integer programming and links to artificial intelligence, Computers & Operations Research, 13, pp , Glover, F., Tabu search: part I, ORSA Journal on Computing, 1, pp , Glover, F., Tabu search: part II, ORSA Journal on Computing, 2, pp. 4 32, Goemans, M. X. and Williamson, D. P., A general approximation technique for constrained forest problems, SIAM Journal on Computing, 24, 2, pp , Goldberg, D. E., Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Goldberg, D. E. and Richardson, J., Genetic algorithms with sharing for multimodal function optimization, in: Genetic Algorithms and their Applications: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, pp , Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Cambridge, MA, Graham, R. L. and Hell, P., On the history of the minimum spanning tree problem, Annals of the History of Computing, 7, pp , Guilloteau, S., The imaging principles, in: Dutrey, A. (ed.), Millimeter Interferometry. Proceedings from IMISS2 IRAM Millimeter Interferometry Summer School 2, IRAM, Saint Martin d Hères, Gunst, A., Van der Schaaf, K., and Bentum, M., Core station 1, the first LOFAR station, ASTRON, Hakimi, S. L., Steiner s problem in graphs and its implications, Networks, 1, pp , 1971.

6 Bibliography 251 Hansen, P., The steepest ascent mildest descent heuristic for combinatorial programming, in: Talk presented at the congress on numerical methods in combinatorial optimization, Capri, Hawkins, D., Identification of Outliers, Chapman and Hall, London, He, Z., Xu, X., and Deng, S., An optimization model for outlier detection in categorical data, in: Huang, D. S., Zhang, X. P., and Huang, G. B. (eds.), Advances in Intelligent Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3644, pp , Springer, Berlin, Hertz, A., Taillard, E., and De Werra, D., Tabu search, in: Aarts, E. H. L. and Lenstra, J. K. (eds.), Local Search in Combinatorial Optimization, pp , Wiley, Chichester, Hjellming, R. M., The design of aperture synthesis arrays, in: Perley, R. A., Schwab, F. R., and Bridle, A. H. (eds.), Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy I, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 6, pp , Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Hogan, J., Radio astronomy: Dutch courage, Nature, 444, pp , Högbaum, J., Aperture synthesis with a non-regular distribution of interferometer baselines, Astronomy & Astrophysics Supplement Series, 15, pp , Holland, J. H., Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, Hwang, F. K., Richards, D. S., and Winter, P., The Steiner Tree Problem, Annals of Discrete Mathematics, 53, North-Holland, Amsterdam, Jarník, V., O jistém problému minimaálním, Práce Moravské Prírodovĕdecké Spole cnosti v Brnĕ VI, 6, pp , Jing, T. T., Feng, Z., Hu, Y., Hong, X. L., Hu, X. D., and Yan, G. Y., λ-oat: λ-geometry obstacle-avoiding tree construction with O(n log n) complexity, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 26, 11, pp , Johnson, T., Kwok, I., and Ng, R. T., Fast computation of 2-dimensional depth contours, in: Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hingham, MA, Karp, R., Reducibility among combinatorial problems, in: Miller, R. E. and Thatcher, J. W. (eds.), Complexity of Computer Computations, pp , Plenem Press, New York, Karp, R., On the computational complexity of combinatorial problems, Networks, 5, pp , Kellermann, K. I. and Moran, J. M., The development of high-resolution imaging in radio astronomy, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 39, pp , Keto, E., The shapes of cross-correlation interferometers, The Astrophysical Journal, 475, pp , Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, C. D., and Vecchi, M. P., Optimization by simulated annealing, Science, 220, 4598, pp , 1983.

7 252 Bibliography Knorr, E. M. and Ng, R. T., A unified notion of outliers: properties and computation, in: Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hingham, MA, Knorr, E. M. and Ng, R. T., Algorithms for mining distance-based outliers in large datasets, in: Proceedings of the 24rd International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pp , Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, Knorr, E. M. and Ng, R. T., Finding intensional knowledge of distance-based outliers, in: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pp , Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, Knorr, E. M., Ng, R. T., and Tucakov, V., Distance-based outliers: algorithms and applications, VLDB Journal: Very Large Data Bases, 8, 3-4, pp , Koch, T. and Martin, A., Solving Steiner tree problem to optimality, Networks, 32, pp , Koch, T., Martin, A., and Voß, S., SteinLib: an updated library on Steiner tree problems in graphs, Online document at steinlib.php, Kogan, L. R., Optimization of an array configuration by minimizing side lobes, ALMA Memo 171, Kogan, L. R., Level of negative sidelobes in an array beam, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 111, 758, pp , Koza, J. R., Evolving a computer program to generate random numbers using the genetic programming paradigm, in: Belew, R. K. and Booker, L. B. (eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, pp , Morgan Kaufmann, San Diego, Kruskal, J. B., On the shortest spanning subtree of a graph and the traveling salesman problem, Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, 7, pp , Kuhn, H. W., A note on Fermat s problem, Mathematical Programming, 4, 1, pp , Lazio, T. J. W., Cohen, A. S., Crane, P. C., and Weiler, K. W., The LOFAR site and its impact on the key astronomical projects, LOFAR Scientific Memo 6, Levin, A. Y., Algorithm for shortest connection of a group of graph vertices, Soviet Mathematical Doklady, 12, pp , LOFAR SEC, Evaluation of candidate sites for the low frequency array (LOFAR) - report of the LOFAR SEC to the LOFAR ISC, Technical report, ASTRON, M.I.T. Haystack Observatory, and Naval Research Laboratory, Luebke, E. L., k-connected Steiner Network Problems, Ph.D. thesis, University of North Carolina, Maat, P., Private communications, Malphrus, B. K., The History of Radio Astronomy and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory: Evolution toward Big Science, Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL, 1996.

8 Bibliography 253 Martins, S. L., Pardalos, P., Resende, M. G. C., and Ribeiro, C. C., Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures for the Steiner problem in graphs, in: Pardalos, P. M., Rajasejaran, S., and Rolim, J. (eds.), Randomization methods in algorithmic design, DIMACS Series on Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, 43, pp , American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, Martins, S. L., Ribeiro, C. C., and Souza, M. C., A parallel GRASP for the Steiner problem in graphs, in: Ferreira, J. A., Rolim, D. P., Simon, H. D., and Teng, S.-H. (eds.), Solving Irregularly Structured Problems in Parallel, Lecture Notes of Computer Science, 1457, pp , Springer, Berlin, Mathur, N. C., A pseudodynamic programming technique for the design of correlator supersynthesis arrays, Radio Science, 4, pp , Matveenko, L. I., Kardashev, N. S., and Sholomitskii, G. B., Large base-line radio interferometers, Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, 8, 4, pp , Melkonian, V., New primal-dual algorithms for Steiner tree problems, Computers & Operations Research, 34, 7, pp , Miller, B. L. and Goldberg, D. E., Genetic algorithms, selection schemes and the varying effects of noise, Evolutionary Computation, 4, 2, pp , Minoux, M., Efficient greedy heuristics for Steiner tree problems using reoptimization and supermodularity, INFOR, 28, 3, pp , Myung, Y. S., Lee, C. H., and Teha, D. W., On the generalized minimum spanning tree problem, Networks, 26, pp , Noordam, J. E., Guidelines for the LOFAR array configuration, Technical report, AS- TRON, O Brien, P. A., The distribution of radiation across the solar disk at metre wavelengths, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 113, pp , Papadimitriou, C. H. and Steiglitz, K., Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity, 2nd edn., Dover Publications, New York, Papadimitriou, C. H. and Vazirani, U. V., On two geometric problems relating to the traveling salesman problem, Journal of Algorithms, 5, pp , Papadimitriou, S. and Faloutsos, C., Cross-outlier detection, in: Hadzilacos, T., Manolopoulos, Y., Roddick, J. F., and Theodoridis, Y. (eds.), Advances in Spatial and Temporal Databases, Lecture Notes of Computer Science, 2750, pp , Springer, Berlin, Pawsey, J. L., Payne-Scott, R., and McCready, L. L., Radio frequency energy from the sun, Nature, 157, pp , Phillips, R. B. and Lonsdale, C. J., The impact of site constraints on array imaging performance for LOFAR - a report to the site evaluation committee, Poggi de Aragão, M. and Werneck, R. F., On the implementation of MST-based heuristics for the Steiner problem in graphs, in: Mount, D. M. and Stein, C. (eds.), Algorithm Engineering and Experiments, Lecture Notes of Computer Science, 2409, pp. 1 15, Springer, Berlin, Polzin, T. and Daneshmand, S. V., Improved algorithms for the Steiner problem in networks, Discrete Applied Mathematics, 112, pp , 2001.

9 254 Bibliography Prim, R. C., Shortest connection networks and some generalisations, Bell System Technical Journal, 36, pp , Rayward-Smith, V. J., The computation of nearly minimal Steiner trees in graphs, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 14, pp , Rechenberg, I., Evolutionsstrategie: Optimierung Technischer Systeme nach Prinzipien der Biologischen Evolution, Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart, Reich, G. and Widmayer, P., Beyond Steiner s problem: A VLSI oriented generalization, in: Nagl, M. (ed.), Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 411, pp , Springer, Berlin, Reinelt, G., TSPLIB - a traveling salesman problem library, ORSA Journal on Computing, 3, 4, pp , Ribeiro, C. C. and De Souza, M. C., Tabu search for the Steiner problem in graphs, Networks, 36, pp , Ribeiro, C. C., Uchoa, E., and Werneck, R. F., A hybrid GRASP with perturbations for the Steiner problem in graphs, INFORMS Journal on Computing, 14, pp , Röttgering, H. J. A., Braun, R., Barthel, P. D., Van Haarlem, M. P., Miley, G. K., Morganti, R., Snellen, I., Falcke, H., De Bruyn, A. G., Stappers, R. B., Boland, W. H. W. M., Butcher, H. R., De Geus, E. J., Koopmans, L., Fender, R., Kuijpers, J., Schilizzi, R. T., Vogt, C., Wijers, R. A. M. J., Wise, M., Brouw, W. N., Hamaker, J. P., Noordam, J. E., Oosterloo, T., Bahren, L., Brentjens, M. A., Wijnholds, S. J., Bregman, J. D., Van Cappellen, W. A., Gunst, A. W., Kant, G. W., Reitsma, J., Van der Schaaf, K., and De Vos, C. M., LOFAR - Opening up a new window on the universe, in: Klöckner, H.-R., Jarvis, M., and Rawlings, S. (eds.), Cosmology, Galaxy Formation and Astroparticle Physics on the Pathway to the SKA, Oxford, Rubinstein, J. H., Thomas, D. A., and Weng, J. F., Degree-five Steiner points cannot reduce network costs for planar sets, Networks, 22, pp , Ryan, C., Reducing Premature Convergence in Evolutionary Algorithms, Ph.D. thesis, National University of Ireland, Ryle, M. and Hewish, A., The synthesis of large radio telescopes, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 120, 3, pp , Ryle, M. and Vonberg, D. D., Solar radiation on 175mc/s, Nature, 158, pp , Saaty, T. L., The Analytic Hierarchy Process, McGraw-Hill, New York, Sakhaei, M., Mahloojifar, A., and Malek, A., Optimization of point spread function in ultrasound arrays, Ultrasonics, 44, pp , Salah, J. E., Site evaluation results for a low frequency array, Presentation at IRQA Workshop, Turtle Bay, Sault, R. J., The weighting of visibility data, VLA Scientific Memo 154, Schoustra, S., Het stelsel van de Rijksdriehoeksmeting en het European Terrestrial Reference System Gebruik en definities, Technical report, Kadaster, 2000.

10 Bibliography 255 Schwefel, H. P., Numerical Optimization of Computer Models, Wiley, New York, Segev, A., The node-weighted Steiner tree problem, Networks, 17, pp. 1 17, Sierksma, G., Linear and Integer Programming: Theory and Practice, 2nd edn., Marcel Dekker, New York, Spears, W. M., De Jong, K. A., Bäck, T., Fogel, D. B., and De Garis, H., An overview of evolutionary computation, in: Brazdil, P. B. (ed.), Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning, no. 667 in Lecture Notes of Computer Science, pp , Springer, Berlin, Spira, P. M. and Pan, A., On finding and updating spanning trees and shortest paths, SIAM Journal on Computing, 4, 3, pp , Steuer, R. E., Multiple Criteria Optimization: Theory, Computation and Application, Wiley, New York, Su, Y., Nan, R. D., Peng, B., Roddis, N., and Zhou, J. F., Optimization of interferometric array configurations by sieving u-v points, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 414, pp , SURFnet, Oproep tot mededinging voor een Managed Dark Fiber Service (MDFS) en/of een Managed Ethernet Service (MES) - Samen Snel Op Glas in de regio Noordoost, SURFnet, Swenson Jr., G. W., Synthetic-aperture radio telescopes, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 7, pp , Takahashi, H. and Matsuyama, A., An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs, Mathematica Japonica, 24, pp , Thompson, A. R., Moran, J. M., and Swenson, Jr., G. W., Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy, 2nd edn., Wiley, New York, Vahdati Daneshmand, S., Algorithmic Approaches to the Steiner Problem in Networks, Ph.D. thesis, University of Mannheim, Vahdati Daneshmand, S., Private communications, Van den Bout, P., Beyond the atmosphere - other factors in telescope site selection, in: Vernin, J., Benkhaldoun, Z., and Muñoz-Tuñón, C. (eds.), Astronomical Site Evaluation in the Visible and Radio Range, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 266, pp , The Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Van der Horst, M., Business analyse: toepassingen van de LOFAR-infrastructuur en de impact op de Noord-Nederlandse economie, Freia and Mount Everest, Van der Vorst, G., Telecommunicatie-infrastructuur - de missing link, Nederlandse Vereniging van BedrijfsTelecommunicatie Grootgebruikers, Van Haarlem, M., LOFAR: the low frequency array, in: Radio Astronomy from Karl Jansky to Microjansky, EAS Publications Series, 15, pp , Van Haarlem, M. P., Exploring the universe with an advanced, adaptive antenna array, Technical report, ASTRON, 2002.

11 256 Bibliography Van Haarlem, M. P., LOFAR scientific applications, Technical report, ASTRON, Vazirani, V. V., Approximation Algorithms, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Verhoosel, J., De Vos, M., Van Veldhuizen, E.-J., Koonen, T., and De Waardt, H., A multi-terabit optical fibre network for a LOFAR telescope, in: URSI 27th General Assembly, Maastricht, Voß, S., Steiner s problem in graphs: heuristic methods, Discrete Applied Mathematics, 40, pp , Voß, S., Modern heuristic search methods for the Steiner tree problem in graphs, in: Du, D. Z., Smith, J. M., and Rubinstein, J. H. (eds.), Advances in Steiner Trees, pp , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Wang, S. M., A multiple source algorithm for suboptimum Steiner trees in graphs, in: Noltemeier, H. (ed.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science, pp , Würzburg, Wang, Z., Che, C. H., and Lim, A., Tabu search for generalized minimum spanning tree problem, in: Yang, Q. and Webb, G. I. (eds.), Trends in Artificial Intelligence, Lecture Notes of Computer Science, 4099, pp , Springer, Berlin, Warme, D. M., Winter, P., and Zachariasen, M., Exact algorithms for plane Steiner tree problems: a computational study, in: Du, D.-Z., Smith, J. M., and Rubinstein, J. H. (eds.), Advances in Steiner Trees, pp , Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Webster, A., The design of MMA configurations of intermediate extent, ALMA Memo 233, Webster, A. S., Computational geometry and the design of aperture-synthesis telescopes, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 427, pp , Werneck, R. F., Private communications, Wikipedia, Williamson, D. P., The primal-dual method for approximation algorithms, Mathematical Programming, 91, 3, pp , Winter, P. and MacGregor Smith, J., Path-distance heuristics for the Steiner problem in undirected networks, Algorithmica, 7, pp , Wong, R. T., A dual ascent approach for Steiner tree problems on a directed graph, Mathematical Programming, 28, pp , Zanders, T., Aanleg van energie en dataverbindingen voor de LOFAR core, AS- TRON, Zitzler, E., Evolutionary Algorithms for Multiobjective Optimization: Methods and Applications, Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich, 1999.