1 Republicanism and Anticlerical Nationalism in Spain
2 Republicanism and Anticlerical Nationalism in Spain Enrique A. Sanabria
3 REPUBLICANISM AND ANTICLERICAL NATIONALISM IN SPAIN Copyright Enrique A. Sanabria, Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition All rights reserved. First published in 2009 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN in the United States a division of St. Martin s Press LLC, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY Where this book is distributed in the UK, Europe and the rest of the world, this is by Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited, registered in England, company number , of Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS. Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the above companies and has companies and representatives throughout the world. Palgrave and Macmillan are registered trademarks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and other countries. ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sanabria, Enrique A. Republicanism and anticlerical nationalism in Spain / Enrique A. Sanabria. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN Spain Politics and government Republicanism Spain History 20th century. 3. Anti-clericalism Spain History 20th century. 4. Nakens, José, I. Title. DP233.S dc A catalogue record of the book is available from the British Library. Design by Newgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd., Chennai, India. First edition: April
4 For the Angela I once knew and for Delia Margarita Sanabria De la Cruz, in Memoriam.
5 Contents List of Figures and Table Acknowledgments ix xi Introduction 1 1. Anticlericalism in Modern Spain and Europe: Struggles over Nation-Building José Nakens Within the New Politics and Nationalist/Republican Culture José Nakens and Republican Anticlericalism: Making an Anticlerical-Nationalist Tradition Republicanism, Anarchism, Anticlericalism, and the Attempted Regicide of The Gendered Language of Republican Anticlericalism Spanish Anticlericalism s Long Decade, Conclusion 175 Notes 181 Bibliography 219 Index 247
6 Figures and Table Figures I.1 The relationship between secularism, clericalism, and anticlericalism The Black Spider, February 3, 1910 El Motín cover Those who preach abstinence and those who practice it, April 14, 1910 El Motín cover Preaching the extermination of liberals, January 27, 1910 El Motín cover Recurring Fashions, August 4, 1910 El Motín cover Kidnappings that go unpunished, September 22, 1910 El Motín cover 133 Table 2.1 El Motín caricature subject matter in discrete periods 49
7 Acknowledgments This book would not have been possible without the enormous support of Pamela Beth Radcliff who selflessly went beyond the call of duty as my graduate mentor at the University of California, San Diego, by being my role model for the past fifteen years. Those of us who are lucky enough to call ourselves her students refer to her as St. Pamela, and I fear I will never be able to thank her enough for all that she is and what she has done for me. While at UCSD I was also blessed to be exposed to the erudite minds and generous spirits of David R. Ringrose, Kathryn Ringrose, Christine Hunefeldt, Susan Kirkpatrick, Carlos Waisman, Bob Edelman, John Marino, Cynthia Truant, and the warm friendships of Michael Bernstein, Steve Cox, David Gutiérrez, David Luft, Paul Pickowicz, Eric Van Young, and Alexander Vergara. I also wish to recognize and thank Stanley G. Payne of the University of Wisconsin and Peter Pierson of Santa Clara University, who are most directly responsible for fanning the flames of my interest in Spain, its history, and the profession and craft of the historian. I am proud to call myself a member of the Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies, which has exposed me and my work to excellent Hispanists from both Europe and the United States. I want to thank the Best Dissertation for the Years 1999, 2000, and 2001 Committee for believing in my thesis. The Society s conferences have given me the opportunity to present my work, receive valuable feedback, and enjoy important conversations with José Alvarez Junco, Carolyn Boyd, William Christian, Dan Crews, Jesús Cruz, Victoria Enders, George Esenwein, Sandie Holguín, Geoff Jensen, Judith Keene, Jack Owens, Allyson Poska, Adrian Shubert, and John Tone. It is thrilling to have forged lasting friendships with graduate school colleagues both at Wisconsin and UCSD who are currently flourishing in the academy and in their personal lives, and who graciously
8 xii Acknowledgments gave part of themselves by commenting on my work, studying alongside me, sharing their insights, cheering me on, or socializing with me during that frustrating transition we call grad school. To Charles Bodie, Brian D. Bunk, Daniel Berenberg, Krista Camenzind, Jordi Getman-Eraso, Barnet Hartston, Maggie Hirthe, Kevin Ingram, John Hoon Lee, Eric Maiershofer, Sarah Malena, Wendy Maxon, Douglas McGetchin, Elizabeth Munson, David Ortiz, Jr., Sean Perrone, Rachel D. Shaw, Theresa Smith, Gabriella Soto-Laveaga, Hamilton Stapell, Daniel Stuber, Ana Varela Lago, Don Wallace, Mark Wild, Clinton Young, Jackie Zucconi, and especially Will Kropp and Phoebe S. Kropp, who, among other things, have given me the frustrating opportunity to mismanage a fantasy baseball team year after year: thank you from the bottom of my heart for giving me your gift of collegial friendship. Indispensable administrative support at UCSD came from Mary Allen, Ivonne Avila, and Bonnie Heather Merrick. During various trips to Spain I was lucky to befriend Terry Berkowitz, Jodi Campbell, Morgan Hall, and Dan Kowalsky who were fellow Fulbright scholars, as well as Paloma Aguilar Fernández, Rafael Cruz, Julio de la Cueva, Juan Hernández Andreu, Manuel Pérez Ledesma, Juan Carlos Sola, and Nigel Townsend. I especially want to thank Patricia Zanisher for helping me with archival and bibliographical access in Madrid in 1996 and I now call Albuquerque and the University of New Mexico home, and I feel privileged to have been welcomed into an intellectual family here replete with exceptional scholars who have not only taken the time to read and comment on my work, but also challenged me to become a better historian and teacher. I am deeply grateful for the mentorship of Melissa Bokovoy and Jane Slaugther, and also the comments, advice, and friendships of Durwood Ball, Cathleen Cahill, Eliza Ferguson, Tim Graham, Linda Hall, Elizabeth Hutchison, Cynthia Radding, Barbara Reyes, Patricia Risso, Richard Robbins, Jay Rubenstein, Virginia Scharff, Andrew Sandoval-Strausz, Jason Scott Smith, Sam Truett, and, of course, the late Tim Moy. Administrative support selflessly came from Yolanda Martínez, Helen Ferguson, Dana Ellison, and Barbara Wafer. Funding for the research and writing of this book and the dissertation from which it emerged was made possible by a Fulbright Fellowship, a Presidential Writing Fellowship from the University of California Office of the President, a Faculty Research Allocation Grant from the University of New Mexico, and grants from the Center for German and European Studies at the University of California,
9 Acknowledgments xiii Berkeley, and the Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies at UCSD. I wish also to thank the helpful library and archival staffs at the Archivo Histórico Nacional (Madrid), the Archivo Histórico Nacional de la Guerra Civil (Salamanca), Spain s National Library, the Hemeroteca Municipal (Madrid), the Archivo de la Villa de Madrid, and the Mandeville Special Collections of UCSD s Geisel Library, especially Lynda Claassen. The Interlibrary Loan Office Staffs at both UCSD and the Zimmerman Library at University of New Mexico were extremely reliable, industrious, and helpful with my plentiful requests. Christopher Chappell and Rachel Tekula, my editor and production manager, respectively, helped make my experience with Palgrave Macmillan go smoothly, and Chris Schmidt-Nowara and my two anonymous readers improved my manuscript immensely. Any errors or omissions remain my own failings, of course. Sadly, my mother Delia M. Sanabria De La Cruz did not live long enough to see this book in print and on her bookshelves, but I pray she is pleased and at peace today. To her and to my invaluable writing partner Angela Allen, I dedicate this book. I also thank my father Enrique E. Sanabria, my brothers Eduardo and Eric Sanabria, my aunt Alma Goss, Susie Ughe Bodine, Melinda Barlass-Ackerman, Ann McGinley and the rest of my family and friends for their interest and enthusiasm for this book. Finally, I thank my two closest friends, Cecily Kuehl Shank and Jessica Messier, for practically living through the rollercoaster ride that was getting this book in print and filling my days with such joy and tenderness. Thank you both for the gifts of love, serendipity, and infinite possibility.