Financial Bootcamp. Facilitator Guide Instructions for Half Day Workshop Delivery


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1 Financial Bootcamp Facilitator Guide Instructions for Half Day Workshop Delivery September 2017
2 2017 National Apartment Association 2
3 Workshop Information Workshop Length: This workshop is designed to be presented in three hours, including a break. Actual time may vary depending on size of participant group and the knowledge level of participants. The estimated timing for the chapters in this workshop including the activities is as follows. Section 1 Intro/Welcome/Workshop Goals 15 minutes Section 2 Number Types 30 minutes Section 3 Basic Algebra 15 minutes Section 4 Comparing and Predicting 20 minutes Section 5 BREAK Practical Property Management Calculations 15 minutes 35 minutes Section 6 Area, Space, and Volume 15 minutes Section 7 Practice 20 minutes Wrap Up & Q&A & Action Plan Estimated Timing: 15 minutes 3 hours 2017 National Apartment Association 3
4 Instructor Preparation Read this guide carefully. Familiarize yourself with the organization and flow of the workshop, as well as the content itself. Review all the materials thoroughly and ensure that you are completely comfortable with all the information and calculations. Even though this is a short workshop (1/2 day) with no exam, you should plan on spending several hours reviewing the materials, planning your workshop, and practicing the calculations. Do a dry run of the material (or at least some of it) in front of willing colleagues or family members. Materials & Equipment Needed: Financial Bootcamp Facilitator Guide for yourself Financial Bootcamp Participant Guide for each participant and one for yourself Financial Bootcamp PowerPoint Slides Calculators for each student and one for yourself (make sure to check if the host is providing those or if students need to bring them) Flipchart and stand or Whiteboard and colored markers Computer, projector, and handheld clicker with laser pointer Microphone or sound system (depending on size of room and participant group) Using This Guide Facilitator Instructions are indicated by < >. There is a suggested narrative for each slide included in this guide. The slides coordinate with the text and contain examples and participant activities as noted National Apartment Association 4
5 Table of Contents Section 1: Welcome, Introductions, and Workshop Goals... 9 Participant Introductions... 9 Learning Goals and Objectives... 9 Section 2: Number Types Rounding Fractions Parts of a Fraction Fractions Additions (When the Denominator is the same) Fractions Additions (When the Denominator is different) Simplify or Reduce a Fraction Fractions Subtraction Fractions Multiplication Fractions  Division When the Numerator is Larger than the Denominator Decimals Changing Decimals to Percentages Changing Fractions to Decimals Percentages Section 3: Basic Algebra Solving for the Unknown (Addition and Subtracting) Solving for the Unknown (Multiplication and Division) Section 4: Comparing and Predicting Averages Average vs. Weighted Average Average vs. Median Annualization versus Extrapolation Annualization Extrapolation Section 5: Practical Property Management Calculations Closing Ratio National Apartment Association 5
6 Resident Turnover Rate Physical Occupancy Economic Occupancy Variance Percentage Percentage Change Rent Increase Percentage Using Percentages to Change a Number (Where number increases) Using Percentages to Change a Number (Rent Increase example where the percentage is known) Using Percentages to Change a Number (Where number decreases) Using Percentages to Change a Number (Where number decreases another example) BreakEven Occupancy Ratio Operating Expense Ratio Loan to Value Ratio Return on Investment (ROI) Cap Rate Section 6: Area, Space, and Volume Calculating Perimeter Calculating Area Calculating Volume Section 7: Practice Rent Per Square Foot Cost Per Unit ProRations Payback Period Variances Operating Expense per Square Foot Action Plan National Apartment Association 6
7 2017 National Apartment Association 7
8 SECTION 1 Welcome, Introductions, and Workshop Goals 2017 National Apartment Association 8
9 Slide 1 Section 1: Welcome, Introductions, and Workshop Goals <Welcome participants to the workshop and introduce yourself if you weren t introduced by the workshop host. Let the participants know that this half day workshop has been designed by NAA to provide them with an opportunity to refresh and sharpen their math skills in preparation for taking the CAM or CAPS Credential Program. Let them know they will be doing calculations throughout the workshop. Participants will be required to write out the calculations they are solving to aid in understanding the methodology behind the calculations.> Participant Introductions <If the group size is less than 20, consider asking participants to introduce themselves by name, company, and why they chose to attend this workshop. If the group size is larger, ask participants to introduce themselves to several of the participants around them. Of course, you can use your own icebreaker activity that fits the time frame if you d like.> Slide 2 Learning Goals and Objectives This workshop will help you achieve six key learning objectives. These goals are to: 1. Refresh your knowledge of fundamental math functions: fractions, decimals, rounding, and percentages 2. Solve for the unknown using basic algebra 3. Understand averages versus weighted averages 4. Learn the difference between annualization and extrapolation 5. Understand how to calculate area 6. Work with common property management calculations that you will use in the CAM and CAPS programs 2017 National Apartment Association 9
10 2017 National Apartment Association 10
11 SECTION 2 Number Types 2017 National Apartment Association 11
12 Let s get started by looking at some number types. Slide 3 Section 2: Number Types We re going to look at several number types: fractions, decimals, and percentages, but first, let s look at the process of rounding. Slide 4 Rounding It s much more efficient to work with values when they are rounded to the nearest tenth or hundredth. Slide 5 In the CAM and CAPS credential courses, you may be instructed to round to the nearest tenth when working with percentages, and to whole numbers when working with dollar amounts. The fundamental rounding technique tells us if the number you are rounding is followed by 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, round the number up. If it s followed by 4, 3, 2, or 1, round the number down. Slide 6 Remember to use whole numbers when working with dollar amounts. Slide 7 Fractions Fractions are a big part of our daily lives, even if we don t realize it. Perhaps it s when you split the check at lunch with your friends. Or when you want to make half of that stir fry dish for dinner and you only need ½ of 1/3 cup of olive oil. In property management, sometimes we have to allocate expenses across multiple properties or figure out our breakeven occupancy, so we need to understand fractions National Apartment Association 12
13 Slide 8 Parts of a Fraction The top number of a fraction is called the numerator and the bottom number is the denominator. The denominator tells the total number of parts in the fraction. This number shows how many equal 'pieces' something has been divided into. Slide 9 Fractions Additions (When the Denominator is the same) When adding fractions with the same denominator, the denominator stays constant. The addition takes place with the numerator only. Slide 10 Fractions Additions (When the Denominator is different) When adding fractions with different denominators, there are a few steps required. In order to add the fractions, we have to convert the denominator to a common denominator. Step 1: Multiply both numbers on the first fraction by the bottom number of the second fraction. We're not changing the value of the fraction; we're just changing how the fraction looks. It's still the same fraction. Step 2: Multiply both numbers on the second fraction by the bottom number of the first fraction. Again, we're not changing the value of the fraction; we're just changing how the fraction looks. It's still the same fraction. Step 3: Add the numerators of the two fractions together. Step 4: Simplify (or reduce if needed) National Apartment Association 13
14 Slide 11 Simplify or Reduce a Fraction To reduce a fraction to its simplest form, divide both the numerator and denominator by the Greatest Common Divisor (GCD). The GCD may be obvious, or it may take several steps to find the simplest version of the fraction. Slide 12 Fractions Subtraction If you are subtracting fractions that have a common denominator, all that is required is to subtract the numerator. (Top example on slide) If the denominators are different, we ll use the same steps we used when adding fractions with different denominators. (Bottom example on slide.) Step 1: Multiply both numbers on the first fraction by the bottom number of the second fraction. We're not changing the value of the fraction; we're just changing how the fraction looks. It's still the same fraction Step 2: Multiply both numbers on the second fraction by the bottom number of the first fraction. Again, we're not changing the value of the fraction; we're just changing how the fraction looks. It's still the same fraction. Step 3: Add the numerators of the two fractions together. Step 4: Simplify (or reduce if needed) National Apartment Association 14
15 Slide 13 Fractions Multiplication Multiplying fractions is straightforward. Multiply the numerator and the denominator and simplify if needed. <Have participants simplify the answer.> Slide 14 Fractions  Division Dividing fractions is a bit more complex. There are three things to remember when dividing fractions. 1. Leave the first fraction as is. 2. Change the divide function to multiply. 3. Turn the second fraction over or invert the one you are dividing by. Slide 15 <Walk through example using the Leave, Change, Turn process. Let participants simplify the answer.> Slide 16 When the Numerator is Larger than the Denominator Sometimes a fraction calculation will result in the top number the numerator being larger than the bottom number the denominator. In this case, the denominator is divided into the numerator to simplify the fraction, resulting in a whole number/decimal combination. To convert the decimal back into a fraction, we leave the whole number as it is. Convert 0.25 to a fraction: 0.25=25/100. Then reduce the fraction to the lowest term, which is 1/ National Apartment Association 15
16 If the decimal goes to the 10 th spot, you d multiply by 10; if it goes to the 1000 th spot, you d multiply by Slide X 100 = 25 1 X 100 = /100 = ¼ Slide 18 Decimals Decimals are important because we use them every day in different situations, such as counting money, looking at price tags, calculating miles per gallon, or figuring price per square foot. Slide 19 Changing Decimals to Percentages To convert a decimal to a percent, multiply the decimal by 100, then add the % symbol. An easy way to multiply a decimal by 100 is to move the decimal point two places to the right. Slide 20 Practice 2017 National Apartment Association 16
17 Slide 21 Changing Fractions to Decimals The diagram on the slide shows the relationships between percentages, decimals, and fractions. To change a fraction to a decimal to get to a percentage, divide the top of the fraction (the numerator) by the bottom (the denominator), multiply by 100 and add a "%" sign. If the fraction is 1/10, divide 10 into 1 resulting in 0.1. Then, using the process we looked at earlier, move the decimal point two places to the right and add the % sign resulting in 10%. Slide 22 Percentages Fractions, decimals and percentages are related and can be used to express the same number, or proportion, in different ways. If we understand fractions, decimals, and percentages, we have the basis for being able to make sound estimations and valuable calculations. Many of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and benchmark figures your company may use to evaluate performance or achievement are in the form of a percentage. Think about closing ratios and work order completions. Slide 23 The diagram on this slide shows the relationship between fractions, decimals, and percentages and demonstrates how one number can be expressed in multiple forms. Slide 24 Looking at the example number from the previous slide, 3/10 becomes a decimal by dividing the denominator into the numerator. It becomes a % by moving the decimal point 2 places to the right National Apartment Association 17
18 Slide 25 <Using the ¾ case of light bulbs from the earlier example, have participants convert the fraction to a percentage.> 2017 National Apartment Association 18
19 2017 National Apartment Association 19
20 SECTION 3 Basic Algebra 2017 National Apartment Association 20
21 In addition to fractions, decimals, and percentages, there are some basic algebra functions that can be helpful in our property management world. Slide 26 Section 3: Basic Algebra Algebra is a form of mathematics that uses letters or symbols for unknown numbers so that we can solve for those unknowns. Slide 27 Solving for the Unknown (Addition and Subtracting) We may know that A = B + C, but what if we only have A and C? We find B by subtracting the last figure from both sides. Slide 28 Solving for the Unknown (Multiplication and Division) The same principle applies to multiplying and dividing National Apartment Association 21
22 Slide 29 Slide National Apartment Association 22
23 2017 National Apartment Association 23
24 SECTION 4 Comparing and Predicting 2017 National Apartment Association 24
25 Much of the financial analysis we conduct in property management pertains to comparing data to historical information or market data, and predicting future income and expenses. Slide 31 Section 4: Comparing and Predicting Let s look at a few tools to help us perform those tasks. Slide 32 Averages Many of the Key Performance Indicators used in Property Management are averages: things like average rent per square foot and average square feet. Using an average, or a weighted average, aids in analytical comparison of data from multiple sources. Slide 33 To determine an average, add all the figures together and divide by the number of figures used. In this example, to determine the average square footage and average rent, add the figures in each column and divide by 5. Average Square Footage: , , ,650 = 5,280 5 = 1,056 Average Rent: $575 + $720 +$925 + $1,250 + $1,800 = $5,270 5 = $1, National Apartment Association 25
26 Slide 34 Average vs. Weighted Average A weighted average is the average of values which are scaled by importance. The weighted average of values is the sum of weights times values divided by the sum of the weights. To find a weighted average, calculate the TOTAL square footage and rent for all units first. In this example, we would multiply the # of units x the SF and Rent for each unit type to determine the total square footage and total rent. The totals are divided by the total # of units. Slide 35 Average vs. Median Total SF # of Units = weighted average SF 264, = 1,019 Total Rent # of Units = weighted average rent 258, = $996 As we saw earlier, to determine an average, the total of all the figures is divided by the number of figures = 11,400 11,400 9 = or 1267 The "median" is the "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median, the numbers should be listed in numerical order from smallest to largest; then identify the middle one of the list. In this example, there are 9 numbers so the middle number (the one in the 5 th spot) is the middle or median. If there were an even number of items on the list, the median would be the midpoint between the figures in the middle 2 spots National Apartment Association 26
27 Slide 36 Average SF: = = 1,124.8 or 1,125 SF Average Rent: = = $1, or $1,170 Total SF Total # of Units = weighted average SF 216, = 1,021 Total Rent Total # of Units = weighted average rent 211, = $998 Slide 37 Annualization versus Extrapolation While we typically think of annualization and extrapolation as being part of the budget process, we can also use them to reforecast financial performance throughout the year. Sometimes these two concepts are used interchangeably but they are different. Slide 38 Annualization Let s look at annualization first. To annualize a dollar amount, determine the average monthly amount by adding the amounts that are known together, and divide by the # of months represented. This provides an average monthly amount that is then multiplied by 12 months to estimate an annual amount National Apartment Association 27
28 Slide 39 Extrapolation Extrapolation takes a list of known numbers and extends the list based on what can be predicted from the list of known numbers. In this example, we can see that the monthly amount has increased by $300 each month so we can predict that trend will continue in the coming months. Before extrapolating known data, check that the numbers aren t skewed for some reason (artificially high or low), and that seasonal changes or anomalies have been considered. Slide 40 Calculate the total for each line item. Advertising, Office Supplies, and Landscape Maintenance are extrapolated by using the number trend shown in the diagram. Clubhouse/Amenity Expense and Appliance Repair are Annualized. Clubhouse/Amenity Expense: = 1,343 1,343 8 = x 12 = 2, or $2, National Apartment Association 28
29 Appliance Repair Expense: = 1,882 1,882 8 = x 12 = $2,823 Slide 41 BREAK Take a 15minute break before transitioning to Property Management Calculations 2017 National Apartment Association 29
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31 SECTION 5 Property Management Calculations 2017 National Apartment Association 31
32 Now that we ve reviewed decimals, fractions, percentages, averages, annualization, and extrapolation, let s look at how they are used in property management calculations. Slide 42 Section 5: Practical Property Management Calculations There is a long list of important calculations in property management. Many are important Key Performance Indicators (KPI), and some are important measurements for lenders and owners. Slide 43 Practical Property Management Calculations In the next phase of the workshop, we will explore these calculations. Closing Ratio Resident Turnover Rate Physical Occupancy Economic Occupancy Variance Percentage Rent Increase Percentage Percent Change Calculating Area Breakeven Occupancy Operating Expense Ratio LoantoValue Rate of Return Cap Rate 2017 National Apartment Association 32
33 Slide 44 Closing Ratio A closing ratio measures the number of leases or closed sales being secured as a portion of all potential sales. It s a KPI used to determine the sales effectiveness of the leasing team. Many companies set a closing ratio goal for the leasing team, usually 3540%, but it varies. To calculate closing ratio, the number of leases is divided by the number of traffic. But what happens if a lease (application) is not approved for some reason? When we adjust the number of closed sales, and recalculate, what is the NET closing ratio? 2 12 =.167 = 16.7% Slide 45 Resident Turnover Rate Resident turnover rate shows the ratio of moveouts compared to the total number of units. Resident turnover rate is most often stated as an annual figure. Organizations often set a resident turnover goal for each property or submarket, usually 5060%, but those goals vary depending on property type and market conditions. In the student housing market, the turnover rate can be as high as 100% or even higher in some cases National Apartment Association 33
34 To determine resident turnover rate, the number of moveouts is divided by the total number of units =.6269 = 62.7% Slide 46 Physical Occupancy Physical Occupancy is calculated by dividing the number of occupied units by the total number of units. (Example on slide.) =.903 = 90.4% Slide 47 Economic Occupancy Economic Occupancy represents occupancy after vacancy, bad debt, concessions, and nonrevenue units have been factored out. The formula is Total Rent Revenue Gross Potential Rent. Note: You ll learn more about GPR and TRR in CAM. Slide 48 $207,320 $248,595 = or 83.4% Economic Occupancy 2017 National Apartment Association 34
35 Slide 49 Variance Percentage When there is a variance between actual expenses or income and budgeted expenses or income, the variance is often expressed as a percentage to aid in comparison and analysis. To calculate a variance percentage, the actual amount is subtracted from the budgeted amount to find the dollar variance. The variance number is then divided by the budgeted amount. $2,500  $2,300 = $200 $2,500 = 0.08 = 8.0% This answer represents a favorable variance since the amount of total expenses is less than budgeted. $1,800  $1,100 = $700 $1,800 = = 38.9% This answer represents an unfavorable variance since the amount of income is less than budgeted. Slide 50 Percentage Change We are often asked to express changes over time as a percentage. This is done by dividing the change amount by the older or earlier amount. Looking at the amount of the water bill each month for the last 4 months, we see that from April to May, there was an increase of $250. If the increase amount is divided by the earlier amount of $5,000, we see that the percentage change in May is 5.0% National Apartment Association 35
36 What is the percentage change for June? $5,785  $5,250 = $535 $5,250 = = 10.2% What is the percentage change for July? $6,360  $5,785 = $575 $5,785 = = 9.9% Slide 51 Rent Increase Percentage We can use that same percentage change process to determine rent increase percentages. The increase amount is divided by the old rate. $925  $850 = $75 $850 = = 8.8% Slide 52 Using Percentages to Change a Number (Where number increases) In the percentage change process we just reviewed, the numbers were known so those numbers were used to calculate the percentage. Sometimes we know the percentage but need to find the number. For example, we know that Bob Brown earns $35,000 per year as a maintenance tech. If he gets a 3% pay increase, what is his new salary? $35,000 x.03 = $1,050 + $35,000 = $36, National Apartment Association 36
37 Alternate Solution: $35,000 x 1.03 = $36,050 (this process saves a step by including the whole number 1 to the known number) Slide 53 Using Percentages to Change a Number (Rent Increase example where the percentage is known) We looked at rent increase percentage earlier where we knew the old and new rate, but if we need to calculate the new rate based on a known percentage, we can do that by multiplying the percentage by the known rate. $525 x.04 = $21 + $525 = $546 (to raise rent by 4%) OR $525 x 1.04 = $546 Slide 54 Using Percentages to Change a Number (Where number decreases) If the percentage indicates a reduction, we still use the known number multiplied by the percentage to find the change number. Then we subtract that number from the original known number. <Have participants answer. What is 93.5% of $1,800?> $1,800 x.065 = $117 $1,800  $117 = $1, National Apartment Association 37
38 Alternate Solution: Similar to the alternate solution we reviewed on the previous slide, we can subtract the known percentage from whole number 1, and use that percentage to multiply the known dollar amount = $1,800 x = $1,683 Slide 55 Using Percentages to Change a Number (Where number decreases another example) <Have participants answer. What is 88% of $15,600?> $15,600 x.12 = $1,872 $15,600  $1,872 = $13,728 OR $15,600 x.88 = $13,728 Slide 56 BreakEven Occupancy Ratio BreakEven Occupancy Ratio is an important measurement as it tells us the lowest occupancy percentage a property can maintain and still be able to pay all the necessary bills. When a property s occupancy falls below the breakeven occupancy level, the owner may have to supplement the property financially, which is never a desirable scenario National Apartment Association 38
39 Breakeven occupancy is calculated by adding the expense components the property is responsible for paying  operating expenses, debt service, and replacement reserve (if applicable) and dividing it by Effective Gross Income (total revenue including other income for the property). Note: You ll learn more about GPR and EGI in CAM. (OE + DS + RR) EGI (Operating Expenses + Debt Service + Replacement Reserve) Effective Gross Income Calculate the BreakEven Occupancy Ratio using the following information: Operating Expenses are $525,667 Debt Service is $306,000 Replacement Reserve is $125,000 Effective Gross Income is $1,101,660 ($525,667 + $306,000 + $125,000) $1,101,660 =.868 or 86.8% Based on this example, the property will need a to maintain 86.8% occupancy rate in order to break even. Slide 57 Operating Expense Ratio Operating expense ratio is an important Key Performance Indicator in property management as it shows the correlation between our operating expenses and our total property revenue. It is calculated by dividing Effective Gross Income into the annual Operating Expenses. OE/EGI = Operating Expense Ratio 2017 National Apartment Association 39
40 Using the following information, calculate the OE Ratio Operating Expenses (OE) = $1,411,870 Gross Potential Rent (GPR) = $2,957,350 $1,411,870 2,957,350 = = 47.7% Slide 58 Loan to Value Ratio Another important measurement, Loan to Value Ratio (LTV), is expressed as a percentage. The lower the LTV, the lower the risk to the lender. It answers the question, how much of the property s value is covered by the loan. The higher the percentage, the higher the risk to the lender. It is calculated by dividing the property value into the loan amount. If the loan amount is $35,000,000 and the property value is $48,000,000, what is the loan value? $35,000,000 $48,000,000 = or 72.9% Slide 59 Return on Investment (ROI) Return on Investment measures the rate of return based on a property s income stream. It is used to identify the efficiency of an investment. It is calculated by dividing NOI by the property value National Apartment Association 40
41 If Heavenly Haven s NOI is $890,000 and the value of the property is $9,000,000, what is the ROI? $890,000 $9,000,000 = or 9.9% Slide 60 Cap Rate Cap Rate is a rate of return used to measure a property s value based on its NOI and to reflect the investor s desired ROI. The lower cap rate = higher value; the higher cap rate = lower value. The Cap Rate is calculated by dividing NOI by the purchase price. Once the Cap Rate is determined, you can find the value by dividing the Cap Rate into NOI. If NOI is $605,875 and the purchase price is $9,000,000, what was the Cap Rate? What is the value of the property based on its income? $605,875 $9,000,000 = or 6.7% $605, % = $9,042,910 This example show that the property is valued at a higher rate than the price the owner originally paid for the asset National Apartment Association 41
42 2017 National Apartment Association 42
43 SECTION 6 Area, Space and Volume 2017 National Apartment Association 43
44 Understanding how area and space is calculated can be very helpful in our property management world. Slide 61 Section 6: Area, Space, and Volume Knowing how to calculate area, space and volume can allow us to calculate the volume of a swimming pool, the area of a room to be painted, or the size of an apartment unit. Slide 62 Calculating Perimeter Calculating the perimeter of a space can provide us with valuable marketing information or allow us to verify information we ve been given. Slide 63 Calculating Perimeter The perimeter is the sum of all sides of the area. This may be useful in determining in how many feet of holiday lights you would need to go around the building or how many feet of molding you ll need to add a chair rail. Slide 64 Calculating Area Area is the measurement of how much space there is inside a room or space National Apartment Association 44
45 Slide 65 Calculating Area Area is determined by multiplying width times height. Calculating the area of a space can be useful for determining how much paint to buy to cover a wall or how much grass seed is needed for an area of the lawn. Slide 66 Calculating Volume Calculating volume can be useful in estimating costs and determining how much a vessel or container can hold. Slide 67 Calculating Volume In property management, the most common need for calculating volume is for determining how many gallons of water a swimming pool holds. Volume is calculated by multiplying width x height x depth. The result gives us cubic feet. (Example on slide) In this example, the swimming pool is cubic feet. 20 ft. x 12 ft. x 5 ft. = 1,200 cubic feet 2017 National Apartment Association 45
46 If there is cubic feet in a gallon, how many gallons will this pool hold? 1, = 8,955 gallons 2017 National Apartment Association 46
47 2017 National Apartment Association 47
48 SECTION 7 Practice 2017 National Apartment Association 48
49 We ve covered a lot in this workshop: fractions, decimals, formulas and more! And we ve completed some calculations for practice. Let s spend a few more minutes practicing what we ve learned. Slide 68 Section 7: Practice Property management software does much of the calculation for us in today s world. Software isn t flawless and there are hundreds of behindthescenes settings that may impact the results we see on reports and dashboards. That makes it important for us to be able to manually calculate when needed or as a way to verify the accuracy of what our property management software system tells us. Slide 69 Rent Per Square Foot Rent per square foot can help us more appropriately compare our rental rates with our competition. It expresses the rent rate in a way that allows for applestoapples comparison. What is the AVERAGE Rent Per Square Foot? ( ) 5 (the # of floorplans) = $1.03 What is the WEIGHTED AVERAGE Rent Per square Foot? Average Rent Average SF $996 1,019 = $ National Apartment Association 49
50 Slide 70 Cost Per Unit <Tell participants two different calculations will be used to complete the graph.> Expenses are often expressed in a costperunit manner. This allows us to be able to compare the results of multiple properties in a meaningful manner. Heavenly Haven has 260 units. Cost per unit is determined by dividing the number of units into the total expense. $32, = $125 $256, = $985 and so on. The TOTAL cost per unit is determined by adding together the CPU for each line item. Slide 71 ProRations , = 4,665 total cost Aside from dealing with prorated rent at movein and moveout, we sometimes have to allocate a portion of a salary or expense to multiple properties. To determine the portion of Mary s salary that each property should pay, divide each property s total units by the total # of units to determine an allocation percentage. Then multiply that % by the total salary. To determine how much each property pays for the joint ad, divide $15,000 by 600 to determine the cost per unit ($25) and then multiply the cost per unit by the # of units for each property National Apartment Association 50
51 Slide 72 Payback Period When recommending upgrades or improvements to a property, one of the critical calculations that will help obtain approval is the estimated payback period. In this example, the number of units multiplied by the cost of the washers/dryers gives us the total cost of the upgrade. What is the total cost? If we know we will be able to charge an extra $50 for the 50 units we upgrade, the monthly additional income would be how much? At $2,500 per month, it will take how many months to recoup the total cost of the washers/dryers? Of course, that assumes that each of these units will be occupied every month. The payback period may be slightly longer if these units are vacant for periods of time during the 13.6 months. $680 per washer/dryer in one unit $50 additional revenue x 50 units = $2,500/month $680 $50 = 13.6 months to recoup cost 2017 National Apartment Association 51
52 Slide 73 Variances Application Fees are budgeted to be $165,000 for the year. Actual Application Fees for the year is $153,357. What are the variance % compared to budget? 165, ,357 = (11,643) negative variance 11,643 $165,000 = or 7.1% This example shows an unfavorable variance since the actual income is less than budgeted. Slide 74 Operating Expense per Square Foot Biscayne Bay is a 320unit apartment community with 353,000 total square feet. For the period ending August 31, the Operating Expenses total $1,237,643. What is annual operating expense per square foot? (Hint: don t forget to annualize.) $1,237,643 8 = $154,705 x 12 = $1,856,465 $1,856, ,000 SF = $ National Apartment Association 52
53 Slide 75 WrapUp <Wrap by asking the participants if they have any final questions or want to go over any component of the workshop one more time. Ask them how they feel about what they learned.> Slide 76 Action Plan <Have the participants complete the action plan worksheet in their participant guide. Once they are done, ask for volunteers to share an action item from their plan.> Slide 77 THANK YOU Thank you for being here today. Congratulations on investing in yourself with continued learning! 2017 National Apartment Association 53
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