1 MOTOR VEHICLES-CERTIFICATES OF TITLE-NEBRASKA CERTIFICATE OF TITLE FOR A STOLEN AUTOMOBILE NOT CONCLUSIVE OF OWNER- SHIP-First National Bank & Trust Co. v. Ohio Casualty Insurance Co., 196 Neb. 595, 244 N.W.2d 209 (1976). INTRODUCTION In First National Bank & Trust Co. v. Ohio Casualty Insurance Co.,' the Nebraska Supreme Court determined the effect of a Nebraska certificate of title 2 issued upon an automobile held by a bona fide purchaser for value whose chain of title originated in a thief.' Consistent with common law doctrine, 4 the Nebraska cou't held that the assignee of a rightful owner prevails over the subsequent good faith purchaser of stolen goods. 5 Whether the common law doctrine should be viable in view of the Nebraska Certificate of Title Act 6 and modern economic realities is the subject of this casenote. At common law, one could not convey title which he did not possess. 7 A thief had no title;" an innocent purchaser of goods from or through a thief had to surrender them to the rightful owner. 9 This contest between the rightful owner and the subsequent purl. 196 Neb. 595, 244 N.W.2d 209 (1976). 2. NEB. REV. STAT to -117 (Reissue 1974). 3. First Nat'l at 597, 244 N.W.2d at 212. In terms of this note, theft is the fraudulent taking of personal property belonging to another, from his possession or one holding for him, without his consent, to deprive the owner of the value and appropriate it for the taker's own use. BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY (4th rev. ed. 1968). For the Nebraska definition of theft, see generally NEB. REV. STAT (Reissue 1975); State v. Blotzer, 188 Neb. 143, 195 N.W.2d 199 (1972). 4. R. BROWN, LAW OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 9.3, at 193 (3d ed. 1975). See also S. WILLISTON, THE LAW OF SALES 23-12, at 364, 366, 369 (4th ed. 1974). The general rule at common law was "that one who has no title to goods cannot pass title to even a bona fide purchaser." R. BROWN, id. 5. First Nat'l at 602, 244 N.W.2d at The principal section in controversy was NEB. REV. STAT (Reissue 1974). 7. R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.3, at Id. 9. Id. The doctrine is now a part of the Uniform Commercial Code: A purchaser of goods acquires all title which his transferor had or had power to transfer except that a purchaser of a limited interest acquires rights only to the extent of the interest purchased.... U.C.C (1). See also U.C.C , comment 1, which expresses the framer's intent to continue the "basic policy" of transferring only such title as the transferor ha d,
2 CREIGHTON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 10 chaser from a thief was especially apt to arise over title to an automobile, the uniqueness of which made it susceptible to theft. 10 Legislatures responded with comprehensive certificate of title laws governing motor vehicles." Nebraska enacted its Certificate of Title Act in with the purpose of identifying motor vehicles, ascertaining their owners, and preventing theft or fraud in the transfer of such vehicles. 13 To achieve these ends, the Legislature provided for an exclusive means of transferring title.1 4 The principal issue in First National 5 was whether the exclusive means for transfer of automobiles rendered a certificate of title conclusive' 6 in the hands of a bona fide purchaser whose chain of title originated in a thief. FACTS AND HOLDING The automobile in question originally was purchased by a husband and wife in Oregon who obtained a valid Oregon certificate 10. See generally Townsend, The Case of the Mysterious Accessory, 16 LAW & CONTEMP. PROB. 197 (1951); Mutual Fin. Co. v. Municipal Employee Union Local 1099, 110 Ohio App. 351, -, 165 N.E.2d 435, 441 (1960). 11. Hudson, 1953 Iowa Motor Vehicle Certificate of Title Law, 3 DRAKE L. REV. 3 (1953). Professor Hudson noted that the explanation surrounding the enactment of the acts usually had the prevention of theft as a main concern. See generally Calhoun v. Farm Bureau Mut. Ins. Co., 255 Iowa 1375, 125 N.W.2d 121 (1963). For a comprehensive list of the certificate of title states and the various attributes of their acts, see Note, Interstate Movement of Motor Vehicles: Certificate of Title Acts and the Uniform Commercial Code, 9 CREIGHTON L. REv. 373, 376 n.26 (1975). 12. Title and Transfer of Motor Vehicles Act, 1939 Neb. Laws 328 (current version at NEB. REV. STAT to -117 (Reissue 1974) ). In Loyal's Auto Exch. v. Munch, 153 Neb. 624, , 45 N.W.2d 913, (1951) the act was upheld as an authorized exercise of the police power by the state legislature and not in violation of the state or federal constitutions. See 30 NEB. L. REV. 656 (1951). Any reference to Iowa's certificate of title law should be applicable to Nebraska's law since both acts are "substantially alike." See Federated Mut. Implement & Hardware Ins. Co. v. Rouse, 133 F. Supp. 226, 230 (N.D. Iowa 1955). 13. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. v. Drawbaugh, 159 Neb. 149, 156, 65 N.W.2d 483, 488 (1948). 14. Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 55 N.W.2d 614 (1952). The court held that a certificate of title "is simply the exclusive method provided by statute for the transfer of title to a motor vehicle." Id. at 195, 55 N.W.2d at First Nat'l at 597, 244 N.W.2d at For purposes of this note, the term "conclusiveness" means that the validity of the title is irrefutable, and no one will inquire into the question of ownership when the certificate is issued bearing the individual's name. See BLACK's LAW DICTIONARY 362 (4th rev. ed. 1968).
3 1977] MOTOR VEHICLES of title.' 7 They assigned the certificate to their insurer, the appellant, after being paid for a claim arising from the theft of the automibile.' 5 The car was later brought to Nebraska where a Nebraska certificate of title was issued upon the presentment of a forged Arizona certificate. 1 9 The car was sold to a dealer, and then purchased by an individual under an installment sales agreement. 20 The lienor, First National, had its interest noted on the certificate of title. 21 Sometime later, an agent of the insurer-appellant removed the vehicle to California and sold it for $5, First National sued for conversion of the car, but the Nebraska Supreme Court held "that the true owner, and his lawful successors in interest, have rights paramount to those of a subsequent bona fide purchaser of a stolen automobile holding a Nebraska certificate of title... based upon a chain of ownership originating with the thief of the car. ' ' 25 THE COURT'S REASONING. In holding that the original owner of a stolen car has rights superior to a good faith purchaser for value, the court emphasized that the Legislature had not intended a certificate of title to be conclusive of ownership. 24 While a certificate of title is essential in order to transfer ownership of a motor vehicle, 25 this exclusive method of transfer did not create title where none existed. 26 The 17. First Nat'l at 596, 244 N.W.2d at Id Id. Id. at 597, 244 N.W.2d at Id., 244 N.W.2d at 212. A lien should be noted upon the certificate. NEB. REV. STAT (Reissue 1974). See First Nat'l Bank v. Providence Fin. Co., 176 Neb. 45, 54-55, 125 N.W.2d 78, 84 (1963). This note will not discuss the problem of security interests in an automobile. For an excellent discussion of the Telationship between certificate of title acts and the U.C.C. section on security transactions, see Note, Interstate Movement of Motor Vehicles: Certificate of Title Acts and the Uniform Commercial Code, 9 CREIGHTON L. REV. 373 (1975). See also Roberts, Certificate of Title and 9-103: Some Problems Solved, Others Left Unresolved, 46 TEMP. L.Q. 90 (1972); Ward, Interstate Perfection of the Motor Vehicle Security Interest: A Bottleneck in Section 9-103, 34 ALBANY L. REV. 251 (1970). 22. First Nat'l at 597, 244 N.W.2d at 212. The car was sold by the insurance company under sealed bids. 23. Id. at 602, 244 N.W.2d at Id. at 598, 244 N.W.2d at 212 (citing Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 55 N.W.2d 614 (1952)). 25. First Nat'l at 598, 244 N.W.2d at Id.
4 CREIGHTON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 10 court reasoned that to hold otherwise would defeat the legislative purpose of preventing theft of automobiles. 27 In arriving at this result, the court classified prior cases into three distinct categories. 28 In some cases the certificate of title was "conclusive of ownership." 29 In others, the certificate was "generally conclusive" of ownership. 30 But cases most persuasive to the First National Court were those where the certificate was found "not conclusive" of ownership. 31 The Nebraska Supreme Court noted that it had "never stated that the certificate of title is always conclusive of ownership. '3 2 Demonstrative of this last category was Snyder v. Lincoln. 33 There, an individual paid for an automobile with a worthless check and then resold it to an innocent purchaser. 3 4 While the Snyder court focused on whether the title exchanged for the check was void or voidable, 3 5 the court also considered the situation where property had been taken by a thief. 6 In dicta, 37 the court stated 27. Id. at 599, 244 N.W.2d at 213 (citing Burns v. Commonwealth Trailer Sales, 163 Neb. 308, 79 N.W.2d 563 (1956)). 28. First Nat'l at 598, 244 N.W.2d at Terry Bros. & Meves v. National Auto. Ins. Co., 160 Neb. 110, 118, 69 N.W.2d 361, 365 (1955); Garbark v. Newman, 155 Neb. 188, 198, 51 N.W.2d 315, 323 (1952). See the discussion of cases in 42 IOWA L. REV. 72, 77-78, 86 (1956). 30. Forman v. Anderson, 183 Neb. 715, 718, 163 N.W.2d 894, 896 (1969); Turpin v. Standard Reliance Ins. Co., 169 Neb. 233, 246, 99 N.W.2d 26, 35 (1959); Universal C.I.T. Credit Corp. v. Vogt, 165 Neb. 611, 624, 86 N.W.2d 771, 779 (1957); State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. v. Drawbaugh, 159 Neb. 149, 157, 65 N.W.2d 542, 547 (1954) (purchaser of a stolen automobile prevailed over insurance carrier of original owner which failed to apply for a certificate in its own name). 31. Allstate Ins. Co. v. Enzolera, 164 Neb. 38, 42-43, 81 N.W.2d 558, 592 (1957); Burns v. Commonwealth Trailer Sales, 163 Neb. 308, 316, 79 N.W.2d 563, 568 (1956); Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 195, 55 N.W.2d 614, (1952). 32. First Nat'l at 599, 244 N.W.2d at Neb. 190, 55 N.W.2d 614 (1952); 153 Neb. 611, 45 N.W.2d 749 (1951); 150 Neb. 580, 35 N.W.2d 483 (1948). 34. Id. at 583, 35 N.W.2d at Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 196, 55 N.W.2d 614, 617 (1952); Snyder v. Lincoln, 153 Neb. 611, , 45 N.W.2d 749, 756 (1951). 36. Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 195, 55 N.W.2d 614, 616 (1952); Snyder v. Lincoln, 153 Neb. 611, , 45 N.W.2d 749, 756 (1951); Snyder v. Lincoln, 150 Neb. 580, 588, 35 N.W.2d 483, 488 (1948). 37. Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 195, 55 N.W.2d 614, 616 (1952) The common law doctrine stated in Snyder was never actually applied in reaching the decision. In the first Snyder case the trial court failed to distinguish between theft and fraud. Thus the appellate court reversed a judgment for the defendant. Snyder v. Lincoln, 150 Neb. 580, 35 N.W.2d 483 (1948). In the subsequent Snyder decisions the taking was determined on re-
5 1977] MOTOR VEHICLES that the original owner still had the right to recover his stolen automobile from the good faith purchaser 38 and that passage of the certificate of title "conveys no greater interest than the grantor actually possesses. '39 The apparent clarity of the state of the law as enunciated in Snyder was obfuscated by a later Nebraska decision, State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. v. Drawbaugh. 40 The only factual distinction between Drawbaugh and First National was the action taken by the insurance companies. In Drawbaugh the company after paying the owner of the stolen automobile for his loss failed to obtain title in its own name until after the action was initiated. 4 1 Reading the act literally, 42 the court held that this failure allowed the innocent purchaser to prevail even though his title was derived from a thief. 43 The court found the certificate of title to be "generally conclusive.' 1 4 Unable to reconcile the Snyder and Drawbaugh decisions, the First National court overruled the latter, 45 criticizing its failure to heed those cases dealing with stolen vehicles. 46 Hence, situations involving stolen automobiles fall within the "not conclusive" rather than "generally conclusive" category. 47 To bolster its conclusion that the Snyder dicta survived Drawtrial to be fraudulent. Thus the court was not faced with the "theft" issue. Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 55 N.W.2d 614 (1952); Snyder v. Lincoln, 153 Neb. 611, 45 N.W.2d 749 (1951). 38. Snyder v. Lincoln, 156 Neb. 190, 195, 55 N.W.2d 614, 616 (1952). 39. Id., 55 N.W.2d at Neb. 149, 65 N.W.2d 542 (1954). 41. Id. at 152, 65 N.W.2d at 544. In First Nat'l the insurance company received title in its own name on August 3, 1973, prior to the initiation of the action. First Nat'l at , 244 N.W.2d at State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. v. Drawbaugh, 159 Neb. 149, , 65 N.W.2d 542, (1954). 43. Id. But see Simmons, C.J. (dissenting opinion), 159 Neb. at , 65 N.W.2d at Id. at 157, 65 N.W.2d at First Nat'l at 602, 244 N.W.2d at Id. at , 244 N.W.2d at 213. The Drawbaugh court relied on Loyal's Auto Exch. v. Munch, 153 Neb. 624, 45 N.W.2d 913 (1951) (a case not involving a stolen automobile). The failure of Drawbaugh to recognize the fact the car was stolen and apply the appropriate rule enunciated in Snyder was instrumental in the First Nat'l court's overruling of Drawbaugh. 47. First Nat'l at , 244 N.W.2d at The fact the car was stolen ended the determination and the bona fide purchaser lost. The appellee argued that the prior cases were illustrative of a lack of dependence on the common law distinction. Brief for Appellee at 9-11, First Nat'l Bank & Trust v. Ohio Cas. Ins. Co., 196 Neb. 595, 244 N.W.2d 209 (1976).
6 CREIGHTON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 10 baugh, the court cited Allstate Insurance Co. v. Enzolera, 4s where a bona fide purchaser bought a stolen automobile and obtained a Nebraska certificate of title through a duplicate out-of-state certificate of title. 49 Holding that the original owner prevailed against the bona fide purchaser the court in Enzolera adopted the dicta of Snyder without mentioning Drawbaugh. 50 Finally, the court looked to the Nebraska Certificate of Title Act itself. 51 Section requires the Department of Motor Vehicles, upon receipt of a certificate covering a stolen vehicle, to notify the original owner of a stolen vehicle and to cancel the certificate of title if it is "improperly issued. 5' 3 From this provision, the court inferred that the Legislature intended to subject the rights of the bona fide purchaser to the rights of the true owner. 5 4 ANALYSIS In holding that the Certificate of Title Act did not abrogate the common law rule that one cannot derive title through a thief, the decision in First National accords with the majority of jurisdictions. 55 The courts advance several grounds in support of these Neb. 38, 81 N.W.2d 588 (1957). 49. Id. at 39-40, 81 N.W.2d at Id. at 41, 81 N.W.2d at 590. While the Enzolera court cited the Snyder rule, the actual holding was based on a determination of whether the Nebraska Certificate of Title was "duly issued" since the certificate had been issued on a duplicate of an out-of-state certificate. Thus, the court perpetuated the Snyder dicta. See First Nat'l at 601, 244 N.W.2d at First Nat'l at , 244 N.W.2d at NEB. REV. STAT (Reissue 1974) provides in pertinent part:... The department shall prepare a report listing motor vehicles stolen and recovered as disclosed by the reports submitted to it and the report shall be distributed as it may deem advisable. In the event of the receipt from any county clerk of a copy of a certificate of title to such motor vehicle, the department shall immediately notify the rightful owner thereof and the county clerk who issued such certificate of title, and if, upon investigation, it appears that such certificate of title was improperly issued, the department shall immediately cancel the same (emphasis added) Id. 54. First Nat'l at 602, 244 N.W.2d at 214. The court stated: "[I]t is obvious from this section that the certificate of title was not intended to, and does not, prevent owners from reclaiming motor vehicles stolen from them, and that the rights of the bona fide purchaser are subject to those of the true owner." Id. 55. Hardware Mut. Cas. Ins. Co. v. Gall, 15 Ohio St. 2d 261, 240 N.E.2d 502 (1968); Northern Ins. Co. of N.Y. v. Miller, 256 Iowa 764, 771, 129 N.W.2d 28, 32 (1964) (citing other jurisdictions in support of the holding); Vincent v. General Motors Acceptance Corp., 75 So. 2d 778 (Fla. 1954). The above jurisdictions, along with Nebraska, are those states which most comprehensively impart conclusiveness to the title certificate. See FLA. STAT. ANN.
7 1977] MOTOR VEHICLES decisions. Some express the view that the common law rule furthers the deterrence of automobile thefts 6 Other decisions turn on an interpretation of the certificate of title acts, holding that those acts were not designed to impart conclusiveness to certificates of title. 57 Finally, certain courts reflect a concern that their jurisdictions could become a "dumping ground" for stolen vehicles if the certificate of title were to be found conclusive. 58 Wholesale incorporation of the common law rule into the certificate of title acts is not compelling, however. 59 The common law rule that one cannot convey title which he does not possess has been qualified by other doctrines. 60 For example, qualification to the general rule has evolved with respect to negotiable instruments. 6 ' Negotiability connotes a merging of the title to goods into the instrument. 62 Thus, if negotiable, (1968); IowA CODE (2) (1973); OHIo REv. CODE ANN (Baldwin 1975). See generally Annot., 18 A.L.R. 2d 813, 839 (1951). 56. Atlantic Fin. Co. v. Fisher, 173 Ohio St. 387, -, 183 N.E.2d 135, (1962). See 49 IOWA L. REV. 1338, 1343 (1964). 57. Northern Ins. Co. of N.Y. v. Miller, 256 Iowa 764, 129 N.W.2d 28 (1964). See Hudson, Iowa Motor Vehicle Certificate of Title Law IV, 14 DRAKE L. REV. 36 (1964). 58. Commercial Credit Corp. v. Pottmeyer, 176 Ohio St. 1, -, 197 N.E.2d 343, 350 (1964) (dissenting opinion); Moch v. Kaffits, 75 Ohio App. 305, 309, 62 N.E.2d 172, 174 (1944). See also Hudson, 1953 Iowa Motor Vehicle Certificate of Title Law, 3 DRAKE L. REV. 3 n.3 (1953). 59. Hudson, supra note 57, at 40. Professor Hudson noted that in a contest between the original owner and the bona fide purchaser the problem is not what the rule is at common law but, whether the statute will give the purchaser greater rights than he would have obtained prior to its enactment. He further reasoned that when statutory law is certain, clear, and subject to only one meaning, then it should not be displaced by common law which will destroy its true intent. See also Hudson, Iowa Certificate of Title Law VI, 23 DRAKE L. REV. 585, 595 (1974). 60. R. BROWN, supra note 4, at 194. In England, one exception to the general rule is the sale in market overt. In a market overt any sale at a fair or open market is good between the parties and binding upon any individual who may have a claim to such property. Thus a purchaser from a thief could prevail over the original owner. This exception, however, was never adopted in the United States. Id. 9.4, at 194. See also S. WILLISTON, supra note 4, 13-12, at ; Hudson, supra note 57, at 45. Recognizing the validity of transfers of stolen property in a market overt, Professor Hudson noted that preferring the rights of the good faith purchaser over the original owner is "not unknown in American Law" although the market overt doctrine has not been adopted in the United States. Id. 61. R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.5, at Documents or writings evidencing ownership and having the attribute of negotiability, if transferred, will cut off certain equities. The title to the thing is thought to be merged in the writing. 42 IOWA L. REV. 72, (1956). See also R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.5, at 195.
8 CREIGHTON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 10 the transfer of the instrument will be given the same effect as the transfer of the property itself. 0 3 Negotiable instruments generally include such things as money, 64 warehouse receipts, 6 5 and bills of lading. 6 Due to commercial necessities, the transferee who was a holder in due course 6 7 of a negotiable instrument took it free "from all claims to it on the part of any person" subject to various specified exceptions. 6 8 Thus, innocent purchasers of stolen negotiable instruments prevailed over the original owners of the instruments. 6 9 While a certificate of title is not a negotiable instrument under the Uniform Commercial Code, various commentators construing certificate of title acts in other jurisdictions contend that a certificate of title could have attributes of "negotiability". 7 One commentator noted that the certificate of title represents the chattel itself in transferring ownership. 71 Since the certificate of title is the exclusive method for transferring ownership, no transfer of ownership of the chattel can be accomplished without indication of the transfer on the certificate of title. 72 Thus, the certificate 63. Id. Under the Uniform Commercial Code an instrument, to be negotiable, must be in writing "signed by the maker or drawer;" must contain "an unconditional promise or order to pay a sum certain in money;" must "be payable on demand or at a definite time;" and must "be payable to order or bearer." U.C.C to See also U.C.C See U.C.C (24); U.C.C ; R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.5, at See U.C.C (15); U.C.C (1); U.C.C to See also R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.5, at 197; J. WHITE & R. SUMMERS, UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE at (1972). 66. See U.C.C (15), 7-104(1) (2), to See also J. WHITE & R. SUMMERS, UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE at (1972). 67. Under the Uniform Commercial Code a holder in due course of a negotiable instrument is protected against all other claims except those specified in the Code. See U.C.C To be a holder in due course, the holder must take the instrument for value, in good faith, and without notice that it is overdue or of any other defense or claim against the instrument. U.C.C to See generally J. WHITE & R. SUMMERS, UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE at (1972). 68. R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.5, at See also U.C.C for various enumerated exceptions. 69. Id. 70. Hudson, supra note 57, at 45; 49 IOWA L. REV. 338, 341 (1964); 42 IOWA L. REV. 72, (1956); see also Commercial Credit Corp. v. Pottmeyer, 176 Ohio St. 1, -, 197 N.E.2d 343, 345 (1964); contra Hardware Mut. Cas. Ins. Co. v. Gall, 15 Ohio St. 2d 261, -, 240 N.E.2d 502, 505 (1968) IOWA L. REV. 1338, 1343 (1964). 72. Id.
9 1977] MOTOR VEHICLES of title becomes "negotiable", and a person should be able to rely on the certificate without having to check behind it. 73 One court has concluded that the literal words of a certificate of title act imparted "negotiability" to the certificate of title. 7 ' That court, holding for the good faith purchaser, stated that a title certificate was comparable to various negotiable instruments which protected the rights of the bona fide purchaser against the original owners. 75 This holding was overruled in Hardware Mutual Casualty Co. v. Gall, 76 the court there reasoning that the act never contemplated such a result. 77 Attributing negotiability to a Nebraska certificate of title, however, is not persuasive since the Act requires that physical possession of the vehicle accompany the certificate of title at the time of transfer of ownership. 78 Seemingly, the requirement of transferring physical possession weakens the reliance that may be placed upon a certificate of title as evidence of ownership. 79 Further, the requirement of transferring both physical possession and the certificate of title hinders the free transferability which the Act attempted to attain 80 In addition to the exception to the common law rule in the area of negotiable instruments, a more amorphous exception has 73. Id. 74. Commercial Credit Corp. v. Pottmeyer, 176 Ohio St. 1, -, -, 197 N.E.2d 343, 345, 349 (1964), commented upon in 34 U. CIN. L. REV. 199 (1964) Ohio St. 1, -, 197 N.E.2d 343, (1964). The court held in favor of the purchaser by a majority of four justices over a strong dissent. One commentator noted that Pottmeyer was a pre-code decision; therefore, the future of the holding was doubtful. See 34 U. CIN. L. REV. 199, (1964) Ohio St. 2d 261, 240 N.E.2d 502 (1968). 77. Id. at -, 240 N.E.2d at 505. The court stated that if the certificate of title statute were intended to impart negotiability to titles, the act would have been written that way. 78. L.B. 1174, 1969 Neb. Laws Other states with comparable certificate of title laws do not require physical possession of the automobile to be passed at the time of transfer of the certificate. Thus attributing negotiability to such certificates is arguable. See IOWA CODE (2) (1973); OHio REV. CODE ANN (Baldwin 1975). 79. See 49 NEB. L. REV. 632, 634 (1970). 80. Prior to the amendment the parties to the transaction merely had to transfer the certificate of title. See generally Loyal's Auto. Exch. v. Munch, 153 Neb. 624, 45 N.W.2d 913 (1951). The amendment was actually enacted to minimize the problem of fixing liability in the event of automobile accidents. The amendment has been criticized as not the best solution to the problem. See 49 NEB. L. REV. 632 (1970).
10 CREIGHTON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 10 arisen with the development of the doctrine of voidable title. 8 ' The difficulty with this class of cases is to distinguish "void" from "voidable" title. s 2 An owner who has been induced by fraud or trick to dispose of his goods conveys voidable title. 8 3 While the owner and bona fide purchaser are innocent with respect to the wrongdoing, the original owner's acts or omissions enable the wrong to occur. 8 4 In making a choice between the two innocent parties, the courts have looked at the original owner's intent. 8 5 If the original owner intended to part with possession and by his own act clothed the wrongdoer with title, title was voidable and the subsequent bona fide purchaser prevails. 8 6 If the original owner did not intend to part with his goods, title was void, and the original owner prevails over subsequent purchasers." 7 The voidable title concept, as well as the special features of negotiable instruments, has limited the effect of the common law doctrine that one cannot convey title which he does not possess. 88 These qualifications illustrate that "the preference for a purchaser from a thief is...not unknown to American law." 8' 9 Reliance on the common law doctrine to determine who prevails in a contest between the original owner and the innocent purchaser should depend on an interpretation of the Act to ascertain whether the Act gives the certificate holder better rights than he would have 81. R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.6, at 197; see generally Ames, Purchase For Value Without Notice, 1 HARV. L. REV. 1 (1887). 82. R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.6, at The three Snyder cases illustrate the problems in distinguishing void from voidable title. See note 37 supra. 83. R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.6, at See also J. HONNOLD, THE LAW OF SALES & SALES FINANCING (4th ed. 1976). The casebook contains an excerpt from a report dealing with the revision of the British Sale of Goods Act. 84. Terry Bros. & Meves v. National Auto. Ins. Co., 160 Neb. 110, 69 N.W.2d 361 (1955). The court stated: It is a general rule that where one of two innocent persons must suffer by the acts of a third, he whose conduct, acts or omissions enables the third person to occasion loss must sustain it if the other party acted in good faith, without knowledge of the facts, and altered his position to his detriment. Id. at 119, 69 N.W.2d at R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.6, at 198, 86. Id. at ; Terry Bros. & Meves v. National Auto. Ins. Co., 160 Neb. 110, 119, 69 N.W.2d 361, 366 (1955). 87. First Nat'l at 599, 244 N.W.2d at 213; see also R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.6, at 200; U.C.C Another exception to the general rule operates through the doctrine of estoppel. See R. BROWN, supra note 4, 9.7, at 202; Hudson, Iowa Motor Vehicle Certificate of Title Law V, 17 DRAKE L. REV. 25, (1967). 89. Hudson, supra note 57, at 45.
11 19771 MOTOR VEHICLES obtained at common law. 9 0 Arguably, the Nebraska Certificate of Title Act could be subjected to varying interpretations favoring either the original owner or the bona fide purchaser. In First National the court found that prior interpretations of section of the Act had never held that a certificate of title was always conclusive. 9 1 Furthermore, the court relied on section to bolster its conclusion that a certificate of title is not conclusive because that section directs the county clerk to cancel a certificate of title improperly issued upon a stolen vehicle. 9 3 Therefore, since a certificate of title was not conclusive, the doctrine that one could not take title from a thief was consistent with the legislative purpose of preventing automobile theft. 9 4 Thus the original owner prevailed over the innocent purchaser. 95 On the other hand, a literal interpretation of section could impart conclusiveness to a certificate of title, thus favoring the bona fide purchaser. 90 The court deemed only the first portion of as pertinent: 97 No person, except as provided in section , acquiring a motor vehicle... from the owner thereof, whether such owner be a manufacturer, importer, dealer, or otherwise, shall acquire any right, title, claim, or interest in or to such motor vehicle... until he shall have had delivered to him physical possession of such motor vehicle... and a certificate of title or a manufacturer's or importer's certificate duly executed in accordance with the provisions of this act (emphasis added). The remaining portion of the section was omitted from the court's opinion. No court in any case at law or in equity shall recognize the right, title, claim, or interest of any person in or to any motor vehicle... sold or disposed of, or mortgaged or encumbered, unless there is compliance with this section See note 59 supra. 91. First Nat'l at 599, 244 N.W.2d at See note 52 supra. 93. Id. 94. See note 13 supra and accompanying text. 95. First Nat'l, at 602, 244 N.W.2d at Hudson, supra note 57, at 38. See also Hudson, Iowa Motor Vehicle Certificate of Title Law VI, 23 DRAKE L. REV. 585, 595 (1974). 97. First Nat'l at , 244 N.W.2d at NEB. REV. STAT (1) (Reissue 1974). 99. Id. This was the same section not considered by the Iowa Court in Northern Ins. Co. of N.Y. v. Miller, 256 Iowa 764, 129 N.W.2d 28 (1964). See IOWA CODE (2) (1973).
12 CREIGHTON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 10 Seemingly, the omitted portion of forces the court to recognize an enforceable right in the person who complies with this section. 110 Upon compliance with the Act only those interests indicated on the certificate of title would be recognized and none other.' 0 ' Thus a certificate of title issued by a state official to an applicant would conclusively establish an ownership interest in him on which others would be able to rely.' 02 Arguably, other sections of the Act bolster this interpretation of "conclusiveness" of the certificate. Sections and , pertaining to issuance of original or duplicate certificates, merely require that the county clerk be satisfied as to the genuineness and regularity of the application for a certificate.' 0 3 These sections do not suggest that subsequently a court should go behind the clerk's determination.' 0 4 CONCLUSION In First National the Nebraska Supreme Court was faced with the difficult problem of determining which of two innocent parties should prevail as owner of a stolen automobile. The difficulties inherent in the decision are magnified when one notes the qualifications superimposed upon the common law rule that one cannot convey title which he does not possess. Furthermore, the applicable statute, the Nebraska Certificate of Title Act, is subject to varying interpretations, making the issue even more difficult. Presumably, the Nebraska Legislature could reexamine the underlying interests and problems in an innocent purchaser's attempt to buy a used motor vehicle. The Nebraska Legislature has already shown some concern for the plight of the bona fide purchaser who buys subject to an unknown security interest by adding section NEB. REV. STAT (1) (Reissue 1974) Hudson, supra note 57, at Id. Professor Hudson reasoned that the first part of the section was sufficient to impart conclusiveness. He further commented on the omission of the second part of the statute in Northern Ins. Co. of N.Y. v. Miller, 256 Iowa 764, 129 N.W.2d 28 (1964): [T]he final portion of the sub-section which the Court failed to quote should literally apply to this situation and... the Iowa certificate issued by the public official to the Iowa purchaser should conclusively establish an ownership interest in him. The phrase that "no court in any case at law or equity should recognize any right, title, claim or interest unless evidenced by a certificate" is too unequivocal, exhaustive of the language, to admit of any other conclusion. Hudson, supra note 57, at NEB. REV. STAT , -112 (Reissue 1974) Id. See Hudson, supra note 57, at 38, 43.
13 1977] MOTOR VEHICLES 103(2) (d) to the Nebraska Uniform Commercial Code However, the purchaser who unwittingly takes title to a stolen vehicle has not received such favorable treatment by the Legislature. The untoward consequences of First National may be impetus for legislative attention to the problem. First National exacerbates the problems for the innocent purchaser. The purchaser is forced to ascertain the status of every prior owner in his chain of title out of fear that the vehicle could be reclaimed by another. This burden of tracing the chain of title is difficult, if not impossible. 106 Furthermore, the decision may undermine the reasonable expectations which an individual derives from a document issued by the state Finally, placing the loss on the bona fide purchaser does not necessarily deter the theft or resale of stolen vehicles The Legislature should consider the economic realities in determining which of the innocent parties could bear the loss. From an economic standpoint, the innocent purchaser should be favored over the original owner. The original owner can take precautions against theft losses by obtaining theft insurance On the other hand, the bona fide purchaser's theft insurance would not cover the loss resulting from reclamation by the original owner, 110 nor is title insurance for automobiles available NEB. REV. STAT. (U.C.C.) 9-103(2) (d) (Supp. 1976) Brief for Appellee at 12-13, First Nat'l Bank & Trust v. Ohio Cas. Ins. Co., 196 Neb. 595, 244 N.W.2d 209 (1976) See Hudson, supra note 57, at 45; 49 IOWA L. REV. 1338, 1343 (1964). While the courts might be following the legislative purpose of preventing theft of automobiles, the "statute should protect the bona fide purchaser who, but for a breakdown in the title system which permitted the issuance of a title certificate to a thief, would not have changed his position." 49 IOWA L. REV. 1338, 1343 (1964) IOWA L. REV. 1338, 1343 (1964) COUCH, CYCLOPEDIA OF INSURANCE LAW , at 78 (2d ed. 1963) COUCH, CYCLOPEDIA OF INSURANCE LAW , at (2d ed. 1963). Where the person taking the automobile from the possession of the insured is in fact the rightful owner who is entitled to possession, there is by definition neither larceny under criminal law nor a theft within the coverage of an automobile theft policy. Accordingly, there is no theft where the true owner takes his automobile, originally stolen from him, from the possession of the insured, who was the ultimate transferee of the car. Id. In the situation where the automobile is stolen from the good faith purchaser the courts are split on the issue of whether the purchaser can recover under his auto insurance policy. See generally Annot., 33 A.L.R.3d 1417 (1970) The good faith purchaser may have a Temedy, on the theory of implied warranty of title, against the individual or dealer who sold him
14 CREIGHTON LAW REVIEW [Vol. 10 Further analysis of the economic considerations must recognize the nature of actual parties in litigation. The First National case really involved the insurer of the rightful owner and the lienholder of the bona fide purchaser.' Perhaps the insurance company is most able to bear the burden of loss."" If the event which is insured against occurs, then the company is obligated to pay." 4 The company assumes the risk in return for the premiums paid by the insured." 5 Unless premiums are reduced to reflect the value of repossessions accruing to the insurer, allowance of a repossession constitutes a windfall to the insurer."1 6 In First National the risk was passed to the subsequent purchaser."' By limiting an insurer's rights to actions directly against the wrongdoer, the risk would not fall on an innocent purchaser."" Since stolen automobiles are usually found stripped and abandoned rather than in the car. U.C.C ; J. WHITE & R. SUMMERS, UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE 9-10, at 299 (1972) First Nat'l at 596, 244 N.W.2d at Brief for Appellee at 14-15, First Nat'l Bank & Trust v. Ohio Cas. Ins. Co., 196 Neb. 595, 244 N.W.2d 209 (1976) COUCH, CYCLOPEDIA OF INSURANCE LAW 1.2, at (2d ed. 1959) Brief for Appellee at 14-15, First Nat'l Bank & Trust v. Ohio Cas. Ins. Co., 196 Neb. 595, 244 N.W.2d 209 (1976). See also R. KEETON, INSUR- ANCE LAW 2, 3 (1971) Nebraska, for the year 1975, had 3,558 stolen vehicles. The state recovered 2,902 of these stolen vehicles. Thus there was an 81% recovery rate for Nebraska Uniform Crime Report, 1975 Annual Report. Since the recovery rate for the state is high, it would seem that some of these recoveries would accrue to the benefit of the insurance company. The benefit should then be reflected in a lowering of the. premium or the company obtains a windfall. On a national basis the statistics on recovered stolen vehicles are as follows: During 1976 member companies reported 199,699 vehicle thefts, an increase of 5.7 per cent over the 1975 figure. The five divisions located 96,981 vehicles-or per cent of the reported thefts. VEHICLES STOLEN VEHICLES LOCATED % Change Division 1976 from % Located % Located Eastern 94, , Pacific Coast 22, , Southern 18, , Southwestern 12, , Western 51, , Totals 199, , Information furnished by the Insurance Information Institute, New York City, New York. (National Auto Theft Bureau, 1976 Annual Report) The subsequent purchaser, by having the stolen vehicle reclaimed from him without the ability to reduce such risk, takes the full loss R. KEETON, INSURANCE LAW 1.2b, at 5-6 (1971).
15 1977] MOTOR VEHICLES the hands of a bona fide purchaser, denying recovery as against the bona fide purchaser might not substantially affect premiums." 1 " While consideration of the relative economic positions of the parties in First National may lead to the conclusion that an innocent purchaser should not bear the risk of loss, the state's interest in preventing the theft and resale of stolen automobiles could be undermined. Yet, a holding that favors the original owner does not clearly further the Act's purpose of deterring thefts. Perhaps the Legislature could devise means more directly aimed at prevention of theft without imposition of a risk on the innocent purchaser. For example, a legislative provision for physical inspection of an automobile prior to issuance of the certificate of title could enhance the protection of the innocent purchaser and deter some methods used by thieves of automobiles.' 2 Benefits accruing from the adoption of measures protective of the innocent purchaser may outweigh the costs of implementing alternatives for deterring the theft and resale of stolen automobiles. Robert L. Lepp-' The trend in stealing automobiles is toward total stripping rather than resale to other individuals, since stripping the car is more profitable than reselling the car as a whole. Information furnished by the National Auto Theft Bureau, 1976 Annual Report. The amount of recoveries of stolen automobiles from bona fide purchasers must not be very great. This would seem so since it is unknown how many stolen vehicles were located in the hands of bona fide purchasers. In light of the fact that the incidence of such recoveries is not very great, no statistics of such. recoveries have been compiled. Letter from Charles Clarke, Executive Vice President, Insurance Information Bureau, New York City, New York (May 6, 1977) Ohio provides for physical inspection of an automobile prior to issuance of a certificate of title. OHIo REv. CODE ANN (Baldwin 1975). See Hardware Mut. Cas. Ins. Co. v. Gall, 15 Ohio St. 2d 251, -, 240 N.E.2d 502, 507 (1968) (dissenting opinion).
Present: All the Justices TOYOTA MOTOR CREDIT CORPORATION v. Record No. 972212 OPINION BY JUSTICE ELIZABETH B. LACY September 18, 1998 C.L. HYMAN AUTO WHOLESALE, INC. FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE CITY
University of Miami Law School Institutional Repository University of Miami Law Review 12-1-1962 Motor Vehicle Conditional Sales -- Inapplicability of a Statutory Exception to the Rule of Comity Carlos
Wyoming Law Journal Volume 11 Number 1 Article 7 February 2018 Motor Vehicle Certificates of Title in Wyoming Leonard McEwan Follow this and additional works at: http://repository.uwyo.edu/wlj Recommended
St. John's Law Review Volume 8, May 1934, Number 2 Article 5 "Value"--A Reply to Professor Kennedy Frederick A. Whitney Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarship.law.stjohns.edu/lawreview
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS COVENTRY PARKHOMES CONDOMINIUM ASSOCIATION, Plaintiff-Appellee, FOR PUBLICATION October 25, 2012 9:05 a.m. v No. 304188 Oakland Circuit Court FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE
Page 434 836 P.2d 434 172 Ariz. 221, 17 UCC Rep.Serv.2d 886 Theron D. RODNEY, Claimant/Cross-Plaintiff in Interpleader/Appellee, v. The ARIZONA BANK (now known as Security Pacific Bank Arizona), Claimant/Cross-Defendant
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS MORTGAGE ELECTRONIC REGISTRATION SYSTEMS, INC., Plaintiff-Appellant, FOR PUBLICATION May 16, 2006 9:10 a.m. v No. 265717 Jackson Circuit Court TRACY L. PICKRELL, LC No.
University of Richmond Law Review Volume 1 Issue 2 Article 3 1959 Can an Equitable Interest Held in Trust Be Transferred Wrongfully by the Trustee Free of the Trust? Ellsworth Wiltshire Follow this and
Louisiana Law Review Volume 11 Number 4 May 1951 Louisiana Vehicle Certificate of Title Act Theodore C. Strickland Repository Citation Theodore C. Strickland, Louisiana Vehicle Certificate of Title Act,
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS E. RICHARD RANDOLPH and BETTY J. RANDOLPH, Plaintiffs-Appellants, FOR PUBLICATION October 3, 2006 9:00 a.m. v No. 259943 Newaygo Circuit Court CLARENCE E. REISIG, MONICA
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS MATTHEW J. SCHUMACHER, Plaintiff-Appellant/Cross-Appellee, FOR PUBLICATION April 1, 2003 9:10 a.m. v No. 233143 Midland Circuit Court DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES,
DISTRICT COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA FOURTH DISTRICT July Term 2005 METEOR MOTORS, INC., d/b/a PALM BEACH ACURA, Appellant, v. THOMPSON HALBACH & ASSOCIATES, an Arizona corporation, Appellee.
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS KENNETH H. CORDES, Plaintiff-Counter Defendant- Appellee, UNPUBLISHED June 7, 2012 v No. 304003 Alpena Circuit Court GREAT LAKES EXCAVATING & LC No. 09-003102-CZ EQUIPMENT
[Cite as Watson v. Neff, 2009-Ohio-2062.] IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF OHIO FOURTH APPELLATE DISTRICT JACKSON COUNTY Jeffrey S. Watson, Trustee, : : Plaintiff-Appellant, : : Case No. 08CA12 v. : : DECISION
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS LAKE FOREST PARTNERS 2, INC., Petitioner-Appellant, FOR PUBLICATION June 6, 2006 9:05 a.m. v No. 257417 Tax Tribunal DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY, LC No. 00-292089 Respondent-Appellee.
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF TENNESSEE FILED December 9, 1999 Cecil Crowson, Jr. Appellate Court Clerk AT KNOXVILLE E1998-00412-COA-R3-CV WESTSIDE HEALTH AND RACQUET C/A NO. 03A01-9810-CH-00332 CLUB, INC.,
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF NEW MEXICO Opinion Number: 2014-NMCA-097 Filing Date: July 22, 2014 Docket No. 32,310 THE BANK OF NEW YORK MELLON f/k/a THE BANK OF NEW YORK, NOT IN ITS INDIVIDUAL
1 FINCH V. BENEFICIAL N.M., 1995-NMSC-068, 120 N.M. 658, 905 P.2d 198 (S. Ct. 1995) IN RE: CLETE NORMAN FINCH and MARY LOUISE FINCH, Debtors. CLETE NORMAN FINCH and MARY LOUISE FINCH, Plaintiffs and Counterdefendants,
Present: All the Justices HARRISON & BATES, INC. OPINION BY JUSTICE LAWRENCE L. KOONTZ, JR. v. Record No. 961318 APRIL 18, 1997 FEATHERSTONE ASSOCIATES LIMITED PARTNERSHIP, ET AL. FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT
Copyright 2007 Negotiable Instrument Page 1 of 8 Business Law Negotiable Instruments Introduction This lesson will discuss the importance of the Uniform Commercial Code when dealing with commercial transactions
ASSEMBLY, No. STATE OF NEW JERSEY th LEGISLATURE PRE-FILED FOR INTRODUCTION IN THE 0 SESSION Sponsored by: Assemblyman JERRY GREEN District (Middlesex, Somerset and Union) SYNOPSIS Permits liens in favor
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS STATE OF ARIZONA DIVISION ONE DOMINICK and LYNN MULTARI, Husband and wife, v. Plaintiffs/Appellees/ Cross-Appellants, RICHARD D. and CARMEN GRESS, as trustees under agreement dated
Case Illustrates Twists and Turns in Dealing with Rights of First Refusal By: Martin Doyle As originally published as a Special to the Legal Intelligencer, PLW, October 19, 2009 Martin Doyle is a member
Present: Carrico, C.J., Compton, Stephenson, Whiting, 1 Hassell, and Keenan, JJ. Lacy, RICHARD F. DAVIS, ET AL. v. Record No. 941971 OPINION BY JUSTICE ELIZABETH B. LACY September 15, 1995 JOHN T. HENNING,
CONTRACT FOR SALE OF REAL ESTATE This is a CONTRACT between (hereinafter Seller or Sellers) and (hereinafter Buyer or Buyers), dated this day of,. THIS INSTRUMENT WILL NOT ALLOW USE OF THE PROPERTY DESCRIBED
Principles of Real Estate Chapter 16-Title Summary This chapter will detail the recording and notice processes, explain the importance of title insurance, and explain the processes used to record title.
IN THE COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA Logan Greens Community : Association, Inc., : Appellant : : v. : No. 1819 C.D. 2012 : Argued: March 11, 2013 Church Reserve, LLC : BEFORE: HONORABLE BONNIE BRIGANCE
304 BIENNIAL REPORT OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL occupant and his family, is no test by which to ascertain if it is exempt, because it is not made such by the constitution; neither can its use in connection
Circuit Court for Montgomery County Case No. 408212v UNREPORTED IN THE COURT OF SPECIAL APPEALS OF MARYLAND No. 1684 September Term, 2016 VICTOR NJUKI v. DIANE S. ROSENBERG, et al., Substitute Trustees
RULES OF DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE VEHICLE SERVICES DIVISION CHAPTER 1320-8-13 TITLES TABLE OF CONTENTS 1320-8-13-.01 Original Applications 1320-8-13-.07 Power of Attorney 1320-8-13-.02 Transfers 1320-8-13-.08
PRESENT: All the Justices BAYVIEW LOAN SERVICING, LLC OPINION BY v. Record No. 062715 JUSTICE G. STEVEN AGEE January 11, 2008 JANET SIMMONS FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF ROCKINGHAM COUNTY James V. Lane, Judge
Present: Carrico, C.J., Compton, Stephenson, Lacy, Keenan, and Koontz, JJ., and Whiting, Senior Justice STUARTS DRAFT SHOPPING CENTER, L.P. OPINION BY v. Record No. 951364 SENIOR JUSTICE HENRY H. WHITING
STOCK PURCHASE AGREEMENT. This Stock Purchase Agreement is entered into as of by a Delaware corporation (the Company ), and (the Purchaser ). SECTION 1. CONSTRUCTION OF AGREEMENT. (a) Interpretation. This
OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF CALIFORNIA No. 94 304 77 Op. Atty Gen. Cal. 185 July 21, 1994 OPINION BY: [*1] DANIEL E. LUNGREN, Attorney General (ANTHONY S. Da VIGO, Deputy Attorney General) OPINION:
SHERWOOD V. MOELLE Circuit Court, D. Nebraska. October 29, 1888. VENDOR AND VENDEE BONA FIDE PURCHASERS QUITCLAIM DEEDS. A grantee in a warranty deed, whose grantor has a warranty deed, and who acts in
[Cite as Am. Tax Funding, L.L.C. v. Archon Realty Co., 2012-Ohio-5530.] IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF OHIO SECOND APPELLATE DISTRICT MONTGOMERY COUNTY AMERICAN TAX FUNDING, LLC : : Appellate Case No. 25096
Hofheimer Gartlir & Gross, LLP Summer 2000 Keeping Your Priorities Straight: Drafting a Lease for Maximum Protection In New York, a commercial landlord has no statutory protection with respect to a tenant
Town of North Castle New York REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS REAL ESTATE BROKER SERVICES 1. Overview The Town of North Castle, New York is hereby requesting proposals from qualified, real estate brokers to assist
Case: 14-20678 Document: 00513136366 Page: 1 Date Filed: 07/30/2015 IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT Summary Calendar DAVID D. ERICSON; ROSEMARY ERICSON, Plaintiffs Appellants,
Third District Court of Appeal State of Florida, July Term, A.D. 2012 Opinion filed September 19, 2012. Not final until disposition of timely filed motion for rehearing. No. 3D12-360 Lower Tribunal No.
HAROLD COFFIELD and WINDSONG PLACE, LLC, IN THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA Petitioners/Plaintiffs, CASE NO.: SC 09-1070 v. L.T.: 1D08-3260 CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, Respondent/Defendant, / PETITIONERS
Notice: This opinion is subject to correction before publication in the PACIFIC REPORTER. Readers are requested to bring errors to the attention of the Clerk of the Appellate Courts, 303 K Street, Anchorage,
HONORABLE MARK W. ARMSTRONG CLERK OF THE COURT L. Slaughter Deputy FILED: CAMELBACK ESPLANADE ASSOCIATION, THE JIM L WRIGHT v. MARICOPA COUNTY JERRY A FRIES PAUL J MOONEY PAUL MOORE UNDER ADVISEMENT RULING
After Recording Return to: Snohomish County Planning and Development Services TDR Program Manager 3000 Rockefeller Ave. M/S #604 Everett, WA 98201 Tax Parcel Numbers: TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS CONSERVATION
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville ScholarWorks@UARK Annual of the Arkansas Natural Resources Law Institute School of Law 2-2003 The Doctrine or After-Acquired Title in Mineral Conveyancing Phillip E.
Third District Court of Appeal State of Florida Opinion filed November 16, 2016. Not final until disposition of timely filed motion for rehearing. No. 3D15-1575 Lower Tribunal No. 14-201-K Norma Barton,
Montana Law Review Volume 39 Issue 2 Summer 1978 Article 10 7-1-1978 Montana Liquor Licenses: Should They Be Leaseable? Virginia Bryan Sumner Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarship.law.umt.edu/mlr
REMEDIES FEBRUARY 2017 CALIFORNIA BAR EXAM QUESTION #2 Steve agreed to convey his condominium to Betty for $200,000 in a written contract signed by both parties. During negotiations, Steve told Betty that,
REFORM OF THE RULE AGAINST PERPETUITIES IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA. While the common law Rule against Perpetuities has been the subject of revision in the United States ever since the New York legislation of
IN THE MATTER OF: APPEAL OF BERMUDA RUN PROPERTY OWNERS from the Decision of the Davie County Board of Equalization and Review Concerning the Valuation of Certain Real Property For Tax Year 1999 No. COA00-833
1 SANDOVAL COUNTY BD. OF COMM'RS V. RUIZ, 1995-NMCA-023, 119 N.M. 586, 893 P.2d 482 (Ct. App. 1995) SANDOVAL COUNTY BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS, Plaintiff, vs. BEN RUIZ and MARGARET RUIZ, his wife, Defendants-Appellees,
REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY (68 PA.C.S.) - PRIVATE TRANSFER FEE OBLIGATIONS Act of Jun. 24, 2011, P.L. 40, No. 8 Cl. 68 Session of 2011 No. 2011-8 HB 442 AN ACT Amending Title 68 (Real and Personal Property)
Page 1 of 8 287 Neb. 917 BRAD WOODLE AND CHASE WOODLE, APPELLANTS, v. COMMONWEALTH LAND TITLE INSURANCE COMPANY, A NEBRASKA CORPORATION, AND OMAHA TITLE & ESCROW, INC., A NEBRASKA CORPORATION, APPELLEES.
1 ADAMS V. BLUMENSHINE, 1922-NMSC-010, 27 N.M. 643, 204 P. 66 (S. Ct. 1922) ADAMS et al. vs. BLUMENSHINE No. 2646 SUPREME COURT OF NEW MEXICO 1922-NMSC-010, 27 N.M. 643, 204 P. 66 January 13, 1922 Appeal
IN THE COMMONWEALTH COURT OF PENNSYLVANIA James Walsh, : Appellant : : v. : NO. 2722 C.D. 2002 : East Pikeland Township : Argued: June 5, 2003 BEFORE: HONORABLE DAN PELLEGRINI, Judge HONORABLE MARY HANNAH
THE PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENTS IN BOUNDARY SURVEYS (THE ETERNAL SUVRVEY QUESTION: HOW CLOSE IS CLOSE ENGOUGH?) By Norman Bowers, P.S. & P.E. Steven S. Brosemer, P.S. Figure 1 Surveyors are all about measurements.
Case: 13-50818 Document: 00512655017 Page: 1 Date Filed: 06/06/2014 IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit FILED June 6, 2014 JOHN F. SVOBODA;
Third District Court of Appeal State of Florida, July Term, A.D. 2009 Opinion filed October 28, 2009. Not final until disposition of timely filed motion for rehearing. No. 3D07-454 Lower Tribunal No. 05-23379
FINAL COPY 284 Ga. 338 S08A1128, S08A1129. MANDERS v. KING; and vice versa. Benham, Justice. William Manders and Janice King are siblings, with Janice serving as the executrix of the estate of their mother,
Third District Court of Appeal State of Florida Opinion filed July 23, 2014. Not final until disposition of timely filed motion for rehearing. No. 3D13-2968 Lower Tribunal No. 9-65726 Walter Pineda and
IN THE DISTRICT COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA FIFTH DISTRICT JULY TERM 2006 REMINGTON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DISTRICT, Appellant, v. Case No. 5D05-2271 EDUCATION FOUNDATION OF OSCEOLA, etc., et
======== LC001 ======== 01 -- H 1 AS AMENDED S T A T E O F R H O D E I S L A N D IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY JANUARY SESSION, A.D. 01 A N A C T RELATING TO TAXATION -- TAX SALES Introduced By: Representative Robert
NOT DESIGNATED FOR PUBLICATION No. 114,113 IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF KANSAS BRIDGESTONE RETAIL OPERATIONS, LLC D/B/A FIRESTONE COMPLETE AUTO CARE, Appellant, v. GFTLENEXA, LLC Appellee. MEMORANDUM
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR ESCROW ACCOUNT 1. The Appointee (s) as defined in their escrow agreement (hereinafter referred to as Escrow Agreement/Agreement ) want to open an account with YES BANK ( Escrow
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS SOUTH COVE CONDO ASSN, Plaintiff-Appellant, UNPUBLISHED October 31, 2006 v No. 270571 Berrien Circuit Court DUNESCAPE @ NEW BUFFALO II, LTD, LC No. 2005-002810-CZ Defendant-Appellee.
Present: Carrico, C.J., Compton, Stephenson, Whiting, 1 Hassell, and Keenan, JJ. Lacy, CAPITAL COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES, INC. v. Record No. 941926 OPINION BY JUSTICE LEROY R. HASSELL September 15, 1995 VINA
CASE LAW UPDATE, JUNE 2009 Unit Owner s Responsibility for Deductibles, Maintenance and Repair April 15, 2009: Xizhen Jenny Chai v. York Condominium Corporation No. 325, (Ontario Superior Court of Justice,
NOTICE: Summary decisions issued by the Appeals Court pursuant to its rule 1:28, as amended by 73 Mass. App. Ct. 1001 (2009), are primarily directed to the parties and, therefore, may not fully address
IN THE DISTRICT COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA FIFTH DISTRICT JANUARY TERM 2007 JEANNE MORRIS AND CHUCK PATE, Appellant, v. Case No. 5D06-871 ARTHUR J. OSTEEN, ETC. ET AL., Appellee. / Opinion
Present: Kinser, C.J., Lemons, Goodwyn, Millette, and Mims, JJ. MCCARTHY HOLDINGS LLC OPINION BY v. Record No. 101031 JUSTICE S. BERNARD GOODWYN September 16, 2011 VINCENT W. BURGHER, III FROM THE CIRCUIT
TENANTS PROJECT De Stefano and Caruso: Analysis and Commentary by Christopher Warnock Tenants Project Tenants' Project Website www.ictenantsclassaction.com I. Introduction De Stefano v. Apts. Downtown,
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS STATE OF ARIZONA DIVISION ONE MALAD, INC., an Arizona corporation, v. Plaintiff/Appellant, ROBERT C. MILLER and JANICE MILLER, husband and wife, Defendants/Appellees. 1 CA-CV 07-0680
STATE OF WISCONSIN TAX APPEALS COMMISSION ROBERT J. LAWRENCE AND CHARLES M. KEMPLER (DEC'D), DOCKET NO. 05-T-83 Petitioners, vs. RULING AND ORDER WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE, Respondent. JENNIFER E.
LC001 01 -- H 1 S T A T E O F R H O D E I S L A N D IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY JANUARY SESSION, A.D. 01 A N A C T RELATING TO TAXATION -- TAX SALES Introduced By: Representative Robert E. Craven Date Introduced:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- AIFC IMPLIED TERMS IN CONTRACTS AND UNFAIR TERMS REGULATIONS AIFC REGULATIONS No. 6 of 2017 December 20, 2017
COLORADO COURT OF APPEALS Court of Appeals No.: 07CA1960 Larimer County District Court No. 07CV788 Honorable Jolene Carmen Blair, Judge Jason Pierce, personal representative of the Estate of Mary Clomer
IN THE DISTRICT COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA FIFTH DISTRICT NOT FINAL UNTIL TIME EXPIRES TO FILE MOTION FOR REHEARING AND DISPOSITION THEREOF IF FILED CHRISTIANA TRUST, AS TRUSTEE FOR ARLP TRUST
RENDERED: FEBRUARY 8, 2013; 10:00 A.M. NOT TO BE PUBLISHED Commonwealth of Kentucky Court of Appeals NO. 2011-CA-001880-MR CHARLES RAY PHELPS AND DONNA P. SOLLY, CO-TRUSTEES OF THE HERSCHEL L. AND ERMA
New South Wales Duties Amendment (Land Rich) Act 2004 No 96 Contents Page 1 Name of Act 2 2 Commencement 2 3 Amendment of Duties Act 1997 No 123 2 Schedule 1 Land rich amendments 3 Schedule 2 Other amendments
MARYLAND BAR EXAMINATION BOARD S WRITTEN TEST July 26, 2016 EXTRACT FOR QUESTION 2 THIS EXTRACT IS TO BE USED FOR QUESTION 2 OF THE BOARD S WRITTEN TEST. THIS EXTRACT CONTAINS SELECTED PROVISIONS OF THE
NOT FOR PUBLICATION WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE APPELLATE DIVISION SUPERIOR COURT OF NEW JERSEY APPELLATE DIVISION DOCKET NO. BENJORAY, INC., v. Plaintiff-Respondent, ACADEMY HOUSE CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER,
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS BANK ONE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, Plaintiff-Appellee, UNPUBLISHED June 4, 2009 v No. 283824 Macomb Circuit Court FRANK A. VENTIMIGLIO, BRANDA M. LC No. 2006-003118-CH VENTIMIGLIO,
NO. 07-07-07-CV IN THE COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SEVENTH DISTRICT OF TEXAS AT AMARILLO PANEL E OCTOBER 1, 008 DION S OF TEXAS, INC., v. Appellant SHAMROCK ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Appellee ST FROM
STATE OE CAI IEORNI A - BUSINESS CONSUMER SERVICES AND HOUSING AGENCY DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DIVISION OF CODES AND STANDARDS 2020 W. El Camino Avenue, Suite 200, Sacramento, CA
August 9, 1983 ATTORNEY GENERAL OPINION NO. 83-119 Fred W. Johnson Labette County Counselor 1712 Broadway Parsons, Kansas 67357 Re: Taxation--Mortgage Registration--Instruments Subject Thereto and Exemptions