Cambridge University Press The Rise of Heritage: Preserving the Past in France, Germany and England, Astrid Swenson

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1 academic disciplines, 155, 190, see also professionalisation Academies, 45, 71, see also associations; societies agriculture, as heritage, 141 Ainsworth, William Harrison, 63 Aitchison, George, 230 Albert, Prince Consort, 174, 175 Alexander II, Tzar, 222 Alexander the Great, 28 Algeria, 160, 273, 316 Alsace-Lorraine, 19, 123, 137, 159, 176, 268 Altenstein, Karl von, 52, 54 American Civil War, 221 Ami des Monuments. See societies Ancient Monuments Act. See preservation legislation Ankor Wat, 149, 152 anthropology, 189 antiquaries, 68 70, see also associations; societies antiquities. See art looting; associations; classical reception; heritage terminology; preservation legislation Arab monuments, 160, 240, 271 archaeology, see also associations; congresses; international congresses; preservation legislation; societies exhibitions, 147, 149 professionalisation, 61, 235 state funding, 293 survey, 57 Archenholz, Johann Wilhelm von, 39 architects. See associations; international congresses; restoration; societies architecture, see also Haussmannisation; historicism; restoration; urban planning and international understanding, 195 at international exhibitions, archives by associations, 76 international archive of architectural drawings, 209 national, 58 of vanishing monuments, 138, 208 on restoration, 157 9, 163 5, 176 Argentina, 228 aristocracy anti-aristocratic policies, 79, 283, custodians of heritage, 59, 302 houses and collections, 30, 31, 40, 59, 300, 302 Arles, Amphitheatre, 160 art, see also Arts and Crafts movement; museums; public art movement creation of, 118, 128, 166, 167, 170, 172, 177, 185, 208 exhibitions, 40, 147, 155, 158, 159, 163, 165, 168, 177, 191 preservation of, 97, 128, 194, 200, 213, 217, 221, 222, 223, 224, 227, 244, 262, 278, 280, 285, 290, 298, 324, 325 art history, 40, 130, 159, 189, 334 art looting Ancient Rome, 37 French Revolution, 3, international protests, 37 9, 40 4 restitution, 43, 45 art market, 45, 276, 324 Art Nouveau, 97, 128, 214 Arts and Crafts movement, 79, 84, 85, 128 Ashbee, Charles Robert, 93 associations, 17, see also societies and the State Britain, 75, France, 51, 183, 206, 250, 287, 293 Germany, 56, 115, , 123, 274, annuaries, 70 antiquarian societies, 29, 69, 72 architectural societies, 59, 76 caricatures, 69, 70, 82, 83, 99, 100 foreign members, 57, 74, 198 geographical distribution, 72, 123,

2 401 in novels, 70, 137 international networks, 66, 73 4, 87, 90 1, 94 6, , , 155, 215 learned societies, 77 leisure associations, 78, membership, 71, 85, 93, 109, 113, 119, 124, , national coordination, 72 4 photographic associations, 138 9, 140 preservation societies, professional associations, 77 publications, 73, 74, 76, 99, 110 sociability, 69, 72, 89, 93, 107 tourism associations, 136, 137 Aufseß, Hans von und zu, 73 Augé de Lassus, Lucien, 169, 206 Austria-Hungary, 168, 170, 222, 229, 273, 274, 314, 323 authenticity, 3, 80 1, 157 authorised heritage discourse, 17 Avebury, 1st Baron, 91, 282, 299, 300, 301, 315 Avebury, stone circle, 299 Avenarius, Ferdinand, 122 Avignon Papal Palace, 161 Town Walls, Baden, 56, 121, 256, 257, 262, 263, 282, 297, 319 Bailleu, Paul, 118, 370 Balfour, Arthur (1st Earl of), 302 Balzac, Honoré de,67 Bamiyan Buddhas, 1 Bardoux, Agénor, 314, 315 Barrès, Maurice, 113, 134, 139, 283, 284, 290 2, 319, 326 Barry, Sir Charles, 180 Bartels, Adolf, 115 Baudot, Anatole de, 171, 203 Baumgart, E., 171, 183 Bavaria and Prussia, 117, 119 international exhibitions, 170 state preservation, 56, 77, 297 Bayreuth, Principality, 30, 278, 293 Beauquier, Charles, , 218, 232, 284 5, 289, 292, 314, 326 Belgium international congresses, 206, 222, 229 international exhibitions, 158, 168 international networks, 110, 207, 232 monuments, 159 public art movement, state preservation, 55, 273 Bergen, 239 Berlin, 130 Arts and Crafts Museum, 175 Brandenburg Gate, 43 Cabinet des Antiques, 42 New Museum, 175 Besnard, Alfred, 197, 216, 229 Bezold, Gustav, 118, 122 biblical heritage, 61, 239 bicycle, and preservation, 134, 135, 136, 138 Biegeleben, Maximilian von, Bilezikdji, 169 Bismarck, Otto von, 294 Blois Castle, 160 Blüchner, Gebhard Leberecht von, 41 Boeswillwald, Émile, 160, 199 Bohnstedt, Alfred, 197, 219 Boiserée, Sulpiz, 26, 53 borderlands, 19, 127, 268 Böttinger, Karl August, 36, 39 Brazil, 206, 209, 228, 273 Brentano, Clemens, 256 Britton, John, 57 Broerman, Eugène, 214 Brown, Gerald Baldwin, 91, 216, 230, 234, 248, 277, 281, 303, 304, 308, 309, 327, 332 Brunswick Castle, 261 Bryce, 1st Viscount, 79, 95 Buisson, Ferdinand, 283 Bulgaria, 273, 274 Buls, Charles, 232, 272 Bund Heimatschutz. See societies Burdett-Courtts, Angela (1st Baronness), 133 Burn, John, 304 Burns, Robert, 67 Buxton, Noel, 305 Cabanis, Pierre Jean George, 45 Cahors, 246, 247 Cairo, 240 Calais, 270 Canada, 228, 242 Canova, Antonio, 46 capitalism, 78, 128, 195, see also threats to heritage car access to heritage, 134, 135 international congresses, 190 Carcasonne, 160 Carter, John, 80 Caumont, Arcisse de, 47, 51, 72, 180, 205 Celtic monuments, 283, 300 Challamel, Jules, 206 Chamberlain, Joseph, 302 Charles-Brun, Jean, 112, 395

3 402 Charolles, 141 Chateaubriand, François-René de,27, 47, 277, 278 Chesterton, Gilbert Keith, 69 China, 19, 206 7, 228, 273 Church, Anglican, 18, 59, 80, 299 Church, Catholic. See churches; Kulturkampf; property; secularisation; Separation of Church and State churches legal protection, 134, 283, 284 5, , 321 preservation, 59, 85, 299 protection in war, 221, 223, 224 Cicero, 28, 37 cities. See municipal preservation; urban planning civilisation. See heritage and civilisation classement. See inventories classical reception, 61, 101, 156, 206, 239 Clemen, Paul, 29, , 119, 122, 231 Cloque, Louis, 216, 232 Cluny, 47 Cockerell, Sidney, 180 Cole, Henry, 174 6, 186 Cologne Cathedral, 14, 25, 48, 53, 54, 76, 169, 240, 241, 257 colonies. See empire Combes, Émile, 284, 314, 315 Commission du Vieux Paris. See societies Committee for International Monuments, 212 comparative history international congress, 190 method, 4 5 congresses, see also international congresses archaeological Britain, 73, 191 France, 47, 55, 73, 191 Day for Conservators, Germany, 119 foreign delegates, 55, historical and antiquarian, Germany, 73 of learned societies, France, 191, 192, 287 Tag für Denkmalpflege, , 122, 130, 191, 231, 263, 298 conservation. See preservation, restoration Conwentz, Hugo, 121, 122, 220, 353 cosmopolitanism, 3, 38 9, 46 attacks on, 41 2 County Councils, 92, 304 Courcelle-Seneuil, Jean-Gustave, 199, 315 Courtney, Leonard, 244 Crimean War, 209 cultural pessimism, 78 cultural transfer celebration of, 317 forgetting of, 336 method, 4 5, 20 on archives, 208 on associative forms, 73 4, 95 6, 135 on museology, 185 on restoration, 185 on state preservation, 51 7, 185, 316 on terminology, Curzon, 1st Marquess, 280, 285, 312, 313, 397 Cuvier, George, 45, 60 Cuypers, Pierre, 232 Cyrus the Great, 28 Darcel, Alfred, 199 Daudet, Alphonse, 67, 137 Degérando, Joseph Marie, 45 Dehio, Georg, 27, 127, 257, 261, 263, 267, 271, 280 Deiniger, Julius, 216, 219 Denkmal, terminology, 9 11, Denkmalpflege, terminology, 9 11, 27, 274 Denkmalschutz, terminology, 274 Denmark, 158, 222, 299, 323 Denon, Vivant, 40, 42, 46 Deptford, John Evelyn House, 90 destruction of heritage, 1, see also threats to heritage First World War, 3, 227 French Revolution, 31, 32, 33 Nine Years War, 256, 259 Paris Commune, 288 Reformation and Civil War, 59, 78 Restoration Europe, 46 Thirty Years War, 256 Dickens, Charles, 66, 67, 69, 73, 131, 301 Didron, Adolphe Napoléon, 80, 116 Dijon, Notre Dame, 31 Dilke, 2nd Baronet, 79 Dinas Oleu, Wales, 91 dinosaurs, 61 Disraeli, Benjamin, 242 Duban, Félix, 169 Dufferin and Ava, 1st Marquess, 91 education. See heritage and education Edwards, Amelia, 132 Egypt art looting, 44 at world s fairs, 149, 151, 170 British conquest, 209 preservation campaigns, 95, 242, 271, 313 preservation legislation, 273 pyramids, 212, 235 Eichhorn, Johann Albrecht Friedrich von, 52, 54, 55 Elgin, 7th Earl, 44

4 403 Ely Cathedral, 169 empire, 18, 94 5 and international congresses, 228 9, and international exhibitions, and metropolitan preservation, 276, colonial conferences, 223 preservation and imperial rule, , 334 preservation in British empire, 58, 285, 323 preservation in French empire, 99, 160, 239, 316, 323 Enlightenment, 30, 36, 41, 46 entangled history, 4 5 environment, 12, 111, see also nature, landscapes Epping Forest, 90 Erbe, terminology, 9 11, 328, Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse, 297 ethnography, 60, 76 Eurocentrism, Europa Nostra, 2 European Heritage Days, 2 European Union, 335 Europeanisation, 7 Eversley, 1st Lord, 79, 90, 91, 94, 305 Fallières, Armand, 201, 202, 203 family heritage, 28, 32, 302, see also aristocracy Faulkner, Kate, 133 Faure, Maurice, 112, 113, 114 Fawcett, Henry, 79 Fawcett, Millicent, 16, 91, 133 Ferry, Jules, 199 Figueiredo, Pedro Américo de, 209, 229 Finland, 273, 274 First World War destruction of heritage, 3, 227 impact on German preservation movement, 127 impact on international networks, 267, 336 preservation of monuments (Kriegsdenkmalpflege), 118, 227 Flaubert, Gustave, 67 Florence, 232, 271 Foncin, Pierre, 112 fossils, 61 Franco-Prussian War, 170, 209, 222, 231, 287, 288 Franta, Dr, 219 Freilitzsch, Friedrich von, 122 French Revolution, 3, 6, 20, 25, 27, 30 46, see also art looting; museums; vandalism and England, 36, 40 and Germany, 25, 35 6, 37 8, centenary, 149, 165 Friedrich Wilhelm III, King of Prussia, 54 Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, 52, 54 Fuchs, Carl Johannes, 122, 127, 195, 355, 377 Gallois, Lucien, 112 Garden City movement, 120, 127 Garnier, Charles, 96, 150, 183, 184, 199, 201 3, 207, 213, 247, 267 Gavardie, Henri de, 284 Geddes, Patrick, 303, 304 geology, 60, 121 Germany particularism, 52, 72, 161 unification, 114, 116, 282, 293 Geymüller, Heinrich von, 206, 215, 231, 232 Gladstone, William, 242 globalisation, 7, 20, 21 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 25, 27, 35, 39, 53, 256, 278 Gonse, Louis, 163, 177, 198 Görres, Joseph, 41, 44 Gough, Richard, 80 Graimberg, Charles de, 256 Grandjean, Louis, 273 Greece foreign interest in, 18, 242, 270 international congresses, 222 preservation legislation, 29, 273, 274, 313, 314, 323 Greenwell, William, 85 Grégoire, Henri (Abbé), 38 Discourses against vandalism, 25, 33 5 reception, 35 6, 39, 53, 134, 207, 279 Grille de Beuzelin, Ernest, 52, 54 Grimm, Jacob, 16, 26, 45 Guillon, Adolphe, 95 6, 208, 232, 247 8, 267, 270, 271 Guizot, François, 16, 45, 49, 51, 57, 72, 278, 287 Gurlitt, Cornelius, 257, 261, 265, 266, 332 Harcourt, 1st Viscount, 305 Harcourt, Sir William, 79 Hardenberg, Karl August von, 53, 54 Hardy, Thomas, 67 Hase, Karl-Benedict, 45 Hauff, Wilhelm, 63 Haussmann, Georges Eugène, 199 Haussmannisation, 97, 100, 248, see also urban planning Heidelberg Castle, 27, , 280 Heimat movement, , see also societies; associations; preservation movement; international congresses and National Socialism, influence on legislation, 279, 296 membership, 124 political views, 124 8

5 404 Heimat, terminology, 9 11, 115, 116, 217 Heine, Heinrich, 256 Helfert, Joseph Alexander von, 308 heritage, see also individual, family, local, national, universal and world heritage and aesthetics, 84, 97, 121, , 217, 277, 296 and civilisation, 11, 34, 37, 39, 125, 147 9, 186, 195, 196, 229, 235 6, 273, 278, 316, 334 and commodification, 18, 134, 258, 260 and conservatism, 54, 93, 124 8, 332 and development, 1, 207 and education, 13, 34, 53, 61, 98, 114, 118, 165 7, 175, 207 8, 214 and endangerment, 12, 186 and freedom, 34, 39, 314 and gender, 83, 131 3, 228 and international understanding, 1, 187, 197, 236, and liberalism, 52, 54, 73, 79, 92, 124 8, 283, 285, 332 and manufacturing, 147 9, 166, and modernity, 60, 78, 125, 312, 328, 332 and morality, 166 and nation, 18, 40, 127, 159, 195 6, 256, 261, 276, 281, 293 and patriotism, 32, 42, 52, 92, 98, 194, 261, 294 and peace, 1, 196, 236, 333 5, 336 and pleasure, 25 65, and political ideologies, 70, 84, 92 3, 98, 113, 124 9, 194, 282 5, , 332 and progress, 12, 60, 78, 128, 129, 147 9, 157, 166, 174, 186, 212, 213, 218, 236, 312 and public health, 79, 97, 217, 281 and race, 124 8, 147 9, and religion, 18, 54, 59, 63, 76, 190, 194, 223, 261, 283 5, and socialism, 83, 93, 124 8, 167, 279 and taste, 84, 166 as human right, 2 as religion, 194 commercial value, 247, 258, 281 definition, 1, 3, 13, 111, , 186, 194, 291 2, , 333 terminology, 8 11, 12 13, 28, 29, 31, 32, 111, , 115, 131, 194, 200, , 217, 223, 274, , 328, 333 heritage consciousness, 28, 60, 71, 137, 207 8, 275, 326 heritage debate, 6 heritage industry, 6 heritage international, 20, heritage makers, 9, 18, 134 heritage movement. See preservation movement Hesse, Grand Duchy, 274, 282, Hesse-Kassel, 293 Hesse-Nassau, 56 Hill, Miranda, 87, 91, 365 Hill, Octavia, 79, 86 93, 94, 132, 135 histoire croisée. See entangled history historic monuments, see also monuments, restoration, tourism, preservation at international exhibitions, in novels, 62 3, 66 historic preservation. See preservation historical culture, 3, 18, 21, 29, 46, 60 5, , 178, 183 historical novels, 62 3 historicism, 27, 128, 157 history, 12, 30, 40, 48, 60, 147 academic discipline, 3, 60, 77 Hohkönigsburg, Alsace, 267, 268 Hölderlin, Friedrich, 256 Holman Hunt, William, 91, 93 Holy Roman Empire, 36, 71 Hornby, John, 91 Hoßfeld, Otto, 117, 121 Hugo, Victor, 16, 27, 48, 131, 200, 256, 277, 278, 286 Guerre aux démolisseurs, 25, 47, 63, 100, 197 Notre Dame de Paris, 47, 62, 64, 81, 98 Humboldt, Alexander von, 46, 73 Hunter, Dorothy, 87 Hunter, Sir Robert, 79, 86 93, 94, 132, 303 Huxley, Thomas Henry, 79, 91 iconoclasm, 31, 32, 33, 71, see also vandalism; destruction of heritage in situ preservation, 38, 53, 239 India archaeology in, 61 international correspondents in, 95 preservation campaigns, 242, 244 preservation legislation, 273, 274, 285, 313 individual heritage, 28 industrial heritage, 141 industrial spirit, 6, 15 industrialisation, 18, 61, 78 and alienation, 80 industry, see also heritage and manufacturing; world s fairs opposition to preservation, 282 intangibility, 1, 8, 12 13, 217 international campaigns, 272 international competition, about internationalism, about preservation legislation, 316, about restoration, 48 about world s fairs, , 185

6 405 naval race, 225, 262 Weltpolitik, 276 international congresses and international exhibitions, Conference on Historic Monuments, 203, 204, , 273 diplomatic conferences, 190, 227 Brussels Conference, Hague Conferences, First International Congress for the Protection of Works of Art and Monuments, 183, 189, 194, 210, 213, 228 First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Athens 187, 215, 228 for Art and Archaeology, for Heimatschutz, 187, 189, 195 6, 217, 228 for Public Art, 189, 194, , 218 for World Nature Protection, 190, 220, 228 government involvement, 206 international participation, 190 1, 233 local agendas, 206, 208 9, 218, of anthropology, 189, 235 of archaeology, 189, 194, 198, 230, 300 of architects, 95, 183, 189, 194, 197, 199, 202, 205, 208, , 218, , 228, 231 of art history, 189, 231 of comparative history, 190, 229 of comparative law, 190 of hygiene, 190, 217, 218 of Orientalists, 190, 235 of Socialists, 205 of Women, 205 of zoology, 220, 235 Second International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historical Monuments, Venice 218, 228 sociability, 198, international conventions, 227 Convention for the Exchange of Works of Art, 175 Geneva Convention, 208, 209, 213 Hague Convention, 213, 214, 217, Red Cross for Monuments, international cooperation, against destruction in war, , 227 for museums, 175 for restitution, 45 6 for state preservation, 164 5, 316, institutions for, , , preservation campaigns, Anglo-French, Anglo-German, in third countries, transatlantic, 240 through world s fairs, 175 international exhibitions. See world s fairs international law, 44, 227 international networks affective relations, 197, 245, creation, 4 by associations, 66, 73 4, 87, 94 6, , by state institutions, 55, 74, 192, 316 through congresses, 55, 95, 233 through restitution, 46 through world s fairs, 95, 155, geographical reach, 19 20, 233, 316, hierarchies within, 19 20, 123, 233, 316, international organisations, 2, 336 internationalism, 4, 197, 233, 333 5, 336 anti-internationalism, 195 doubts about, free trade, 191 scientific, 193 socialist, 191 inventory, 76 Britain, 57 France, 55, 56 international, 212, 214 Prussia, 54, 55 Ireland, 158, 299, 301, 303 Istanbul, 240 Italy art looting, 37 9 correspondents in, 95, 110 foreign interest in, 18, 270 international congresses, 229 international exhibitions, 158, 170 preservation in, 29, 273, 274, 312, 323 Jacob, Ernest H., 239 James, Henry, 134 Japan, 19, 228, 273 Jaurès, Jean, 127 Jerusalem, 209 Temple, 40 Johnson, Samuel, 278 Kahn, Albert, 142 Kinver, Staffordshire, 140 knowhow, as heritage, 1 Koch, Fritz, 123 Koch, Robert, 218 Kugler, Franz, 55

7 406 Kulturerbe, terminology, 9 11 Kulturkampf, 284 Kyphäuser Monument, 257 Lake District, 87, 89, 90, 240 Lambermont, Auguste, 223, 224 Lance, Adolphe, 168 landreform Britain, 280, 283 Germany, 280 landscapes as heritage, 1, 83, legal protection, 112, 218, 289 preservation of, 79, 90, 99, 111, 116, 120, 121, 137, 218 languages, as heritage, 1, 12, 13 Laon, Notre Dame, 160 Laufenburg Rapids, Baden, 121 Lausanne Cathedral, 232 Lavisse, Ernest, 177 Layard, Sir Austen Henry, 147, 300 Le Breton, Hippolyte, 207 Le Creusot, 141 Le Goffic, Charles, 113 League of Nations, 21, 187 International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, 335, 336 International Museums Office, 226 Learned Societies. See associations Leighton, Sir Frederic, 91 leisure. See associations, historical culture; photography; tourism Lenoir, Albert, 98, 180 Lenoir, Alexandre, 25, 26, 33, 35, 47, 98, 160, 200 Lessing, Julius, 175, 186 Lichtenstein Castle, 63 Lieber, Francis, lieux de mémoire, 7 life reform movement, 115 Likhatchof, J., 213 Linder, Werner, 123 living peoples exhibitions of, 61 preservation of, 190, 220 Lizon, source of, Doubs, 111 local heritage, 97, 115, 141, 292, 326 Locke, William, 230 Lockroy, Édouard, 201 Loersch, Hugo, 117, 351, 360, 375 London, see also museums; societies; world s fairs City Churches, 85 Hampstead Heath, 90 Tower of London, 63 Louis Philippe, King of France, 48, 49 Louis XIV, King of France, 258 Louvain Library, 3, 227 Low Countries, 37 Lubbock, Sir John. See Avebury, 1st Baron Lucas, Charles, 229 Lutsch, Hans, 122 Mallorca Cathedral, 169 Manchester Art Exhibition, 175 Manos, Colonel, 223 Marsy, Comte de, 191, 199, 229, 361 Martin, Henri, 97 Matsuura, Koïchiro, 1 Matthisson, Friedrich von, 256 Maupassant, Guy de, 67 Maurras, Charles, 112, 113 medievalism, 54, 61, see also historical culture; restoration Meißen Cathedral, memory, 1, 7, 21, 98, 138 9, 208, 256, 318, 336 Mérimée, Prosper, 48, 51, 54, 55, 163, 166, 175, 180, 181, 182, 200, 287, 288 Metternich, Klemens Wenzel Lothar von, 53, 73 Mexico, 206, 209, 228, 273 Meyer, Georg Heinrich, 121 middle classes. See preservation movement, social composition; associations; membership Mielke, Robert, 121, 122, 123 Milan Cathedral, 232 Mill, John Stuart, 79, 248 Milner, John, 80 Mistral, Frédéric, 109, 113 modernisation, 126, 147 9, 166, 217, 286, see also heritage and modernity modernism, 128 Monod, Gabriel, 96 Mont Saint-Michel, 218 Montagu Butler, Henry, 91 Montalembert, Charles de, 50, 98, 277, 278, 286 Montalivet, Camille de, 47, 53, 57 monument definition, 12 13, 29, 97, 159, 216, 289, 291 2, terminology, 32, 114, 200, , , Morrell, Philip, 304 Morris, May, 133 Morris, William, 16, 27, 79 81, 89, 127, 130, 242 4, 252 Mouzon, Abbey, 160 municipal preservation, 111, , 218, 234, 292, 303, 313, see also societies; international congresses; preservation legislation

8 407 Müntz, Eugène, 96, 198, 214, 229, 231 museums and in situ preservation, 38 applied arts museums, Arts and Crafts Museum Berlin, 175 British Museum, 58, 298, 300 by associations, 76 cast museums, Counter-Vandalism Museum, Paris, 101, 106 Crystal Palace, Sydenham, 175 Germanic Museum Harvard, 118 Germanic National Museum, Nuremberg, 73, 175, 230, 293 Hanseatic Museum, Bergen, 239 historic museums, 35 Louvre, 30, 40, 41, 42, 44, 47, 52 Madame Tussaud s, 62 Metropolitan Museum of Arts, 177 Museum of Cluny, Paris, 160 Museum of Comparative Sculpture, Paris, 181, 182, Museum of French Monuments, Paris, 35, 40, 47, 160 Museum of National History, Versailles, 48 New Museum, Berlin, 175 public access, 30, 57 Roman Germanic Museum, Mainz, 293 South Kensington Museum, 173, 174, 175 music, as heritage, 1 Muthesius, Hermann, 122, 231, 253 5, 261 6, 270, 271 Nancy, Ducal Palace, 160 Napoleon, 40, 41, 44, 62 Ashes, 48 Napoleon III, Emperor of France, 167, 168 Napoleon, Prince (Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte), 192 Napoleonic Wars, 3, 20, 51, 52, 71, 74, 281 national heritage (concept), 3, 28, 32, 42, 45, 52, 59, 60, 159, 302, 327, see also heritage and nation; heritage terminology national monuments, 52, 57, 65, 76, 239, 280, 293, 334 National Trust. See societies nationalism, 54, 127, 256, 333, see also heritage and nation nature, 13 global preservation, 190, 220 legal protection, 289 Nauman, Friedrich, 120 Netherlands, 95, 158, 168, 170, 222, 229, 232, 273 Nicholas II, Tzar, 225 Niederwald Monument, 257 Nieuwerkerke, Emile de, 180 Nineveh, 147 non-governmental organisations, 2 Normand, Alfred, 96, 229 Normand, Charles, 96 8, 110, 111, 139, 194, 198, 199, 203, 205, 208, , 214, 220, 226, 227, 229, 231, 247, 272 museum, 101, 106 nostalgia, 15, 60, 78, 147 Nuremberg, 261, 312 Oechelhaeuser, Adolf von, 119 Oldenburg, Duchy, 274, 282, 298 Oliver, Francis, 94 open spaces. See preservation; societies, CPS, National Trust; heritage and public health Orange, Roman Theatre, 247 Orientalism, 147, 189, 235 Ottoman Empire international congresses, 224 international exhibitions, 169 preservation legislation, 273, 274, 323 preservationist interventions, 271 Palatinate, 76 Paley, Fredrick Althorp, 62 Papal States, 30, 274 Paray-le-Monial, 141 Paris, see also museums; societies; revolution; world s fairs Eiffel Tower, 150 Notre Dame, 31 Old Paris, 150, 154, 183 Panthéon, 38, 47, 48 PlacedelaConcorde,218 Place des Victoires, 218 Place des Voges, 218 Place Vendôme, 218 Roman Arena, 208 Sainte Chapelle, 160 St. Julien le Pauvre, 247 Tuileries, 97 Parthenon Marbles, 44 Pasteur, Louis, 218 patrimoine, terminology, 9 11, 28, 29, 32, 111, 194, 200, , 223, 328, Paulus, Eduard von, 117, 122 peace movement. See heritage and peace; international congresses; international conventions Pearson, John Loughborough, 252 peasants, 207 Peers, Charles Reed, 305 Persius, Reinhold, 116, 117, 122, 206, 231

9 408 Peru, 228 Peterborough Cathedral, 254, 255 philology, 60 photography amateur, and preservation, Heliographic Mission, 246 international exchange of photographs, 177 international exhibitions, 164 record, 138, 140, 142 Picard, Alfred, 197 Pierrefonds Castle, 160, 162 Pitt-Rivers, Augustus, 300 plunder. See art looting Polybius, 28 Ponsonby, Sir Henry, 261 Pont du Gard, 160 Pope, Alexander, 67 popular culture. See historical culture Portugal, 170, 206, 228, 229, 273, 274 Prague, 110, 219 pre-historic monuments, 299, 321, 331 preservation, see also art, cities; landscapes, nature of birds, 217, 235 of commons, 78 9 of ensembles, 214, 217 of institutions, 58, 60 of language, 76 of living peoples, 12, 13, 190, 220 of open spaces, 79, 86, 88 of traditions, 121, 140 of works of science, 32, 34, 223, 224, 226 preservation campaigns, 21, 272, see also international campaigns; societies petitions, 3, 32, 38, 41, 44, 134, 139, 247, 249, 257, 291, 301, 307 preservation legislation Algeria, 273, 316 and federalism, 284 and land reform, , 283, and position of Churches, 283 5, and property rights, 50, 53, 277, 283, 286, and public health, 281 and welfare state, 276 Austria, 273 Belgium, 273 Brazil, 273 Bulgaria, 273, 274 China, 273 comparative law, 316 Denmark, 299, 323 discussion at congresses, 118, 206, discussion at world s fairs, 172, 183, 273 Egypt, 273 Finland, 273, 274 France, 274, Germany, 293 8, 324 Baden, 280, 284, 297, 319 Bavaria, 297 Bayreuth, 30, 293 Hesse, 297 8, 325 Hesse-Kassel, 293 imperial law, 293 4, intra-german rivalry, 296, 313 Oldenburg, 298, 325 Prussia, 275, 284, Saxony, 297 Württemberg, 297 global spread, 21, 275 Greece, 29, 273, 274, 323 Hungary, 274, 323 India, 273, 274, 303, 313 international cooperation, 316 international rivalry, 288, 296, 301, 316 Ireland, 301, 303 Italy, 273, 274, 312, 323 Japan, 273 Mexico, 273 Netherlands, 273 opposition to, 286 Papal States, 274 Portugal, 273, 274 provisions, 317, Romania, 274 Sweden, 274, 315 Switzerland, 274 Tunisia, 273, 274, 323 Turkey, 273, 274, 323 United Kingdom, 274, United States of America, 273 preservation movement, see also associations; societies; heritage and political ideologies; preservation legislation as reform movement, 128 differences in national structures, 133 foundation myths, 25 7, 98, 200, 201, geographical distribution, 20, 123, 130, national coordination England, 95 France, 114 Germany, 128 size, 70 1, 119, 124, 133 4, social composition, 18, 75, 85, 93, 124, , , 249, preservation, by state, see also preservation, state offices; preservation legislation

10 409 and private movement, 13 16, 51, 56, 74 5, 183, 206, funding, 284, 285 6, 290, 293, 317, 325 in foreign countries, 58, 239, 293 institutionalisation England, 57 9, France, 48 51, Germany, 51 7, 293 8, international exhibitions on, 155, opposition within bureaucracies, publications, preservation, state offices Commission for Public Art and Monuments, Bavaria, 56 Committee for Historic Works, France, 49, 55, 57, 74 Conservator for Monuments of Arts and Antiquity, Bavaria, 56 Conservator of Artistic Monuments, Prussia, 54 Conservator, Baden, 56 Conservator, Württemberg, 56 Departmental Historic Monuments Commission, Bordeaux, 51 Diocesan Buildings Service, France, 98, 158, 180 Historic Monuments Commission, France, 49, 50 1, 55, 57, 76, 77 and associations, 97, 98, 206, 248 exhibitions, , 163 7, international congresses, 229 legislation, Historical Commissions, Germany, 73 Inspector for Fine Arts, Bavaria, 56 Inspector of Ancient Monuments, Britain, 300, Inspector of Historic Monuments, France, 48, 49, 55, 232, 273 Monument Commission, Prussia, 55 6, 185 Monument Councils, Hesse, 322 Monument Councils, Oldenburg, 322 Office for Nature Protection, Prussia, 121 Office of Works, Prussia, 53 Provincial Monuments Commissions, Prussia, 295 Public Record Office, 58 Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Scotland, 185, 304 Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments, Wales, 304 Royal Commission on the Historic Monuments of England, 185, 304 preservationist periodicals, 133 Bulletin Monumental, 47, 111, 177 Die Denkmalpflege, L Ami des Monuments, 99, 110, 177 professionalisation of preservation, 77, 117, 119, 132, 155, 208, 215, 235, 317 property, see also aristocracy; Church; preservation legislation collective possession, expropriation, 31, 55, 285, 287, 322, 323, 324 protection during war, 223 protestant-catholic relations, 18, 54, see also Kulturkampf Proust, Antonin, 98, 181, , 203, 315 Prudhomme, René (Sully), 111 Prussia international exhibitions, 170 Prussian reforms, 52 regional differences, 56 state preservation, 51 6, 273, 275, 282, public access international exhibitions, 178 monuments, 63 museums, 30, 57 open spaces, 86, 135, 321 private houses, 59, 321 through transport, 134 public art movement, public opinion, 44, 56, 65, 67, 78, 81, 212, 223, 255, 258, 286, 289, 291, 296 public sphere, 15 16, 30 Puthod de Maison-Rouge, François, 32 Quast, Ferdinand von, 54 6, 116, 278, 279, 294 Quatremère de Quincy, Antoine-Chrysostome, 38 9, 45, 47 racism. See heritage and race railways and access to heritage, 134 as threat to heritage, 89, 90, 217 Ranke, Leopold von, 294 Raphael, 29, 33 Ravaisson, Félix, 207 Rawnsley, Hardwicke, 79, 86 93, 94, 230, 303 Reformation, 59, 63, 261 regional differences, 18 19, 56 regionalism, Rehorts, Karl, 123 Reichensberger, August, 295 Reinach, Theodore, 291 religion. See heritage and religion religious buildings, 224, see also churches Renan, Ernest, 199 Republic of Letters, 3, 31, 38, 45

11 410 restoration and alienation, 80, 167 and modernity, 60, 166 and nation-building, 48, 65, 281 and religious revival, 59 and social cohesion, anti-restoration, 27, 29, 79 81, 100, 117, 183, 199, 208, 214, , 243 international campaigns, by associations, 76 by governments, 48 caricatures, 81, 82, 83, 259, 268 definition, 60, 63 in novels, 62 3 international competition about, 48 international congresses on, 208, 214, international exhibitions on, 49, of buildings, 3, 49, 64, 254, 268 training of architects, 59, 194, 215 revolution, see also French Revolution 1830, 47, 48, 65, , 47, 61 fear of, 60, 167 Paris Commune, 288 Rheims Cathedral, 3, 227 Rhineland, 26, 37, 41, 52, 53, 240 Rhoné, Arthur, 198 Riegl, Alois, 127, 365 Robida, Albert, 99, 100, 108, 154, 183 Romania, 170, 274 Romantic movement, 25, 35, 40, 47, 256 Rome, see also classical reception; Italy, art looting Arch of Titus, 40, 161 Saint Peter, 232 Rosebery, 5th Earl of, 91, 95 Rothschild, Alphonse de, 199 Rouen Cathedral, 252 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 101, 222 Rudorff, Ernst, 120 2, 127, 279 Ruskin, John, 27, 87, 89, 91, 243, 279, 281 international reception, 113, 118, 197, 208, 217, 271 Seven Lamps of Architecture, 80, 82, 167 Russia, 213, 219, 222, 228, 229 Sacy, Antoine Silvestre de, 45 Saint Denis Abbey, 25, 26, 31, 35 Saintenoy, Paul, 232 San Francisco, 177 Sanderad Müller, Thomas, 36 Sarasin, Paul, 220 Sardinia, 168 Sarrazin, Otto, 117 Saxony, 56, 265, 297 Schäfer, Carl, 122, 257 8, 259, 265, 267 Schiller, Friedrich, 35, 39 Schinkel, Karl Friedrich, 27, 53, 54, 278, 390 Schlegel, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich, 39 Schliemann, Heinrich, 231 Schmidt-Ott, Friedrich, 231 Schultze-Naumburg, Paul, 122, 123, 126, 195, 253 Schumann, Clara, 120 sciences, as heritage, 32, 34, 223, 224 Scotland, 303 Anglo-Scottish relations, 19, 283 protection of churches, 299 Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Scotland, 304 Society of Antiquaries, 300 Scott, Sir George Gilbert, 81, 169 Scott, Walter, 67 Second World War, 1, 236, 335 secularisation England, 71 France, 31 German States, 36, 53 Seidl, Gabriel von, 122 Separation of Church and State, France, 283 5, Sherborne Abbey, 161 Slater, William, 161 societies, see also associations Alpine Club, 135, 137 Ami des Monuments, 107, 108, 114, 218 and SPAB, campaigns, caricatures, 100 international committee, 213, international congresses, 210, international exhibitions, 183 international networks, , 232, 267 membership, 109, 130 periodical, 99, 110 philosophy, 97, Amis des Monuments parisiens, 95 8, 110, 198, 214, 229 Amis des Monuments rouennais, 99, 132, 207 Archaeological and Architectural Society of Durham and Northumberland, 85 Archaeological Society of Brussels, 207 Archaeological Society of Moscow, 213 Armenian Relief Fund, 87 Associated Architectural Societies, 73

12 411 Association for Art and Antiquities in Ulm and Upper Swabia, 76 Association for Hessian History, 56 Bavarian Popular Art Association, 123 Borrowdale and Derwentwater Defence Fund, 90 British Archaeological Association, 73, 86, 300 British Association for the Advancement of Science, 73, 300 Bund Heimatschutz, international congresses, 217 membership, 130 Charity Organisation Society, 90 City Church and Churchyard Protection Society, 85 Cobden Club, 196 Cockburn Association, 303 Cologne Cathedral Association, 76 Commission du Vieux Paris, 110, 214, 215, 229, 234 Committee for the Conservation of Avignon s Town Walls, 249 Commons Preservation Society, 78 9, 87, 89, 91, 94, 135, 300 Dürerbund, 119 English Cyclist Touring Club, 135 Federation of German Architects and Engineers, 77, 231, 294 Federation of German Tourism Associations, 137 French Regionalist Federation, 112 General Association of German Historical and Antiquarian Associations, 73, 74, 77, 116, 117, 294, 312 German Federation of Industrialists, 282 Historical Association of the Palatinate, 77 Incorporated Church Building Society, 59 Keswick and District Footpath Association, 90 Kyrle Society, 87, 91 Ladies Guild, 87 Lake District Defence Society, 90 League against Publicity in the Countryside, 113 League for Decentralisation, France, 112 Linnaean Society, 91 Literary and Antiquarian Society of Perthshire, 301 Mecklenburg Heimat Association, 123 Mudfog Society for the Advancement of Everything (fictional), 67, 131 National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 90 National Photographic Record Association, 138, 140 National Trust, 27, 78, 79, 86 95, 128 American branch, 95 international networks, 87, 90 1, 242, 311 membership, 2, 93, 130, 132 national networks, 92 National Trust Act, 303, 304 philosophy, 92 3, 135 Old Heidelberg Association, 258 Pan-German-League, 124 Pickwick Club (fictional), 66, 67, 69 Provincial Renaissance, 113 Rhenish Association for Heimat and Monument Care, 123 Royal Academy of Arts, 91 Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 300 Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 58, 73, 74, 86, 300 Royal Botanic Society, 91 Royal Institute of British Architects, 59, 77, 215, 300 and France, 57, 110 international congresses, 230 international exhibitions, 176 Société française d archéologie, 47, 51, 77, 109, 111, 199 Société historique Cercle Saint Simon, 96 Société populaire des Beaux Arts, 113 Société pour la protection de l esthétique de la France, 111 Society for National Ethnography, France, 112 Society for the Conservation of Swiss Art, 207 Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, 27, 78, 79, 86, 92, 198 and Ami des Monuments, 95 6 and legislation, 300, 301 caricatures, 82, 83, 243 First World War protests, 227 international campaigns, international congresses, 199, 207, 208, 210, 230 international exhibitions, 176 manifesto, 27, 84, 95 membership, 85, 130, 132 national networks, 86 principles, 84 Society for the Protection of French Landscapes, and Heimatschutz,

13 412 societies (cont.) international congresses, 217 membership, 113 Society for the Protection of Historic Monuments of Alsace, 137 Society of Antiquaries of France, 51, 200 and England, 57 Society of Antiquaries of London, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 86, 253, 303 and France, 57 and legislation, 300 international congresses, 230 international networks, 311 Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 300 Society of Architects, France, 77, 214 Thames Preservation League, 92 Touring Club de France, 111, 135, 139, 141 Trustees of Reservations, Boston, 90 1 Union françaisedelajeunesse, 207 Union Régionaliste Bretonne, 113 Verein für ländliche Wohlfahrtspflege, 121, 122 Vosges Club, 135 Werkbund, 122 Wordsworth Society, 90 Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. See societies Sohnrey, Heinrich, 121, 122 Sombart, Werner, 121 Sommerard, Alexandre du, 160 Sommerard, Edmond du, 160, 165, 166, 170, 181, 186 Sonderweg, 2, 6, 14, Spain, 169, 170, 222, 229, 244, 314 spoliation. See art looting state preservation. See preservation, by state, preservation, state offices, preservation legislation Stein, Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum, 41 Stone, Sir Benjamin, 140 Strasburg, 287 Cathedral, 25 Stübben, Joseph, 231 Studt, Heinrich Konrad von, 295 Suzor, Count, 219 Sweden, 29, 30 Sweden and Norway, 170, 222, 239, 274, 314, 315 Switzerland, 207, 220, 222, 228, 229, 232, 274 Tag für Denkmalpflege. See congresses Taine, Hippolyte, 279 Talbot, Fanny, 91 Tattershall Castle, 305 Taylor, Helen, 133, Tcheng Ki Tong (Chen Jitong), 206 7, 228 technical monuments, 166 Tewkesbury Abbey, 79 Theurriet, André, 112 Thode, Henry, 258 Thomas, Albert, 283 threats to heritage, 78, 97, see also destruction advertisements, 114 art market, 276 capitalism, 78, 83, 195 changing values, 196 commodification, 239, 260 hydropower, 121, 217 industrialisation, 78, 114, 116 modernisation, 116, 120, 233, 247 railways, 89, 90, 114 restoration, 78, 196, 259 tourism, 134 5, 260 translocation, 38, 239 urban planning, 99, 100, 196, 248 war, 196, 209, 227 time, 11, 30, 61 Tirard, Pierre, 201, 202, 203 Toulouse, St. Sernin, 160 tourism, 45, 107 and preservation, 107, 108, , 208, 247, 281 as threat to heritage, 134 5, 258 foreign travel, 40, 41, 247, 256 widening of access, 134 town and country planning. See urban planning; preservation legislation translatio imperii, 37, 40 Trélat, Gaston, 229 Trier, 36 Our Lady, 169 Tudors, 61, 63 Tunisia, 228, 273, 274, 316, 323 Turner, Hugh Thackeray, 81, 84, 208, 248 9, 250, 263, 270, 271 Turner, William, 256 Ulm Cathedral, 76, UNESCO, 1, 21, 236, 335, 336 United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage, 1 United States of America, 19 and English preservationists, 90 1, 95, at international congresses, 228 First World War protests, 227 international role, 225, 336 museums, 177 preservation legislation, 273 world s fairs in, 158, 177 universal heritage, 4, 187, 197, , 229, 235 6, 245, 261, 278, see also world heritage

14 413 urban planning, 100, , 218, 248, 304 vandalism, 214, see also Grégoire, Henri Counter-Vandalism Museum, Paris, 101, 106 discourses against, 33 5 international reactions, 35 6 Vattel, Emer de, 221, 222 Vaudoyer, Léon, 180 Velasco, José, 209 Venice, 218 Saint Mark s, Verne, Jules, 273 Versailles, 48 Vézelay, 49, 95 Victoria, Queen, 240, 261 Vidal de la Blache, Paul, 96, 112 Viollet-le-Duc, Adolphe, 171, 203 Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène Emmanuel, 48, 49, 50, 60, 63, 77, 95, 160, 161, 162, 163, 166, 168, 169, 171, 175, 181, 182, 200, 203, 250, 251, 288, 354 visual culture, 40, 62, 77, 114, 163 4, 256 Vitet, Ludovic, 50, 200 Vitu, Auguste, 199 Voigt-Rhetz, General, 224 völkisch ideas. See Heimat movement; heritage and race; Sonderweg Vormärz, 71 Wallé, Peter, 118 Wallon, Henri, 98 Wallraf, Ferdinand, 26 war, see also art looting; destruction; Napoleonic Wars; Franco-Prussian War; First World War; Second World War international conventions for the protection of heritage, 227 Red Cross for Monuments, Ward, Mary Augusta (Mrs Humphry), 91 Wardle, George, 84 Wartburg, 63 Watts, George Frederic, 91 Webb, Philip, 84, 85 Weber, Max, 121 Weber, Paul, 122, 280 Weimar Classics, 25, 38 Wellington, 1st Duke, 45 Westminster, 1st Duke, 79, 89, 91 Wieland, Christoph Martin, 35 Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 239, 267 Wolfenstein Castle, 77 Wordsworth, William, 87, 89, 90, 277 working classes, see also heritage and socialism; preservation movement, social composition; restoration, social cohesion and Heimat movement, 127 and open spaces movement, 89 international exhibitions, 178 world heritage, 2, see also universal heritage World Heritage Convention, 1 world s fairs and education, as international meeting places, 155, Chicago, 177, historic monuments exhibitions, international competition, international cooperation, 176 local agendas, , 186 London 1851, 147, 161, 174, 175, 196, 207 London 1862, 157, 158, 161, 174, 208 Paris, 156, 157, 159, 168, 172, 180, history of work exhibition, 147, 148, 157 8, 160, 161, 170, 174, 179 history of human housing exhibition, 149, 150, 183, 184 Old Paris, 150, 154, 183 San Francisco, 177, 214 Vienna, 158, 170, 209 Württemberg, 56, 170, 297, 312 Wussow, A. von, 308 Wyatt, James, 80, 161 Yorke, Harriet, 91, 93 Zix, Benjamin, 41, 42 zoology, 220 Zwirner, Ernst Friedrich, 169